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339
Linearizability: a correctness condition for concurrent objects
, 1990
"... A concurrent object is a data object shared by concurrent processes. Linearizability is a correctness condition for concurrent objects that exploits the semantics of abstract data types. It permits a high degree of concurrency, yet it permits programmers to specify and reason about concurrent object ..."
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Cited by 928 (25 self)
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A concurrent object is a data object shared by concurrent processes. Linearizability is a correctness condition for concurrent objects that exploits the semantics of abstract data types. It permits a high degree of concurrency, yet it permits programmers to specify and reason about concurrent objects using known techniques from the sequential domain. Linearizability provides the illusion that each operation applied by concurrent processes takes effect instantaneously at some point between its invocation and its response, implying that the meaning of a concurrent object’s operations can be given by pre and postconditions. This paper defines linearizability, compares it to other correctness conditions, presents and demonstrates a method for proving the correctness of implementations, and shows how to reason about concurrent objects, given they are linearizable.
Reactive Modules
 FORMAL METHODS IN SYSTEM DESIGN
, 1996
"... We present a formal model for concurrent systems. The model represents synchronous and asynchronous components in a uniform framework that supports compositional (assumeguarantee) and hierarchical (stepwiserefinement) design and verification. While synchronous models are based on a notion of at ..."
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Cited by 276 (36 self)
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We present a formal model for concurrent systems. The model represents synchronous and asynchronous components in a uniform framework that supports compositional (assumeguarantee) and hierarchical (stepwiserefinement) design and verification. While synchronous models are based on a notion of atomic computation step, and asynchronous models remove that notion by introducing stuttering, our model is based on a flexible notion of what constitutes a computation step: by applying an abstraction operator to a system, arbitrarily many consecutive steps can be collapsed into a single step. The abstraction operator, which may turn an asynchronous system into a synchronous one, allows us to describe systems at various levels of temporal detail. For describing systems at various levels of spatial detail, we use a hiding operator that may turn a synchronous system into an asynchronous one. We illustrate the model with diverse examples from synchronous circuits, asynchronous sharedm...
An OldFashioned Recipe for Real Time
, 1993
"... this paper appeared in ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 16, 5 (September 1994) 1543 1571. The appendix was published electronically by the ACM. Contents ..."
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Cited by 211 (18 self)
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this paper appeared in ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 16, 5 (September 1994) 1543 1571. The appendix was published electronically by the ACM. Contents
Computing Simulations on Finite and Infinite Graphs
, 1996
"... . We present algorithms for computing similarity relations of labeled graphs. Similarity relations have applications for the refinement and verification of reactive systems. For finite graphs, we present an O(mn) algorithm for computing the similarity relation of a graph with n vertices and m edges ..."
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Cited by 147 (6 self)
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. We present algorithms for computing similarity relations of labeled graphs. Similarity relations have applications for the refinement and verification of reactive systems. For finite graphs, we present an O(mn) algorithm for computing the similarity relation of a graph with n vertices and m edges (assuming m n). For effectively presented infinite graphs, we present a symbolic similaritychecking procedure that terminates if a finite similarity relation exists. We show that 2D rectangular automata, which model discrete reactive systems with continuous environments, define effectively presented infinite graphs with finite similarity relations. It follows that the refinement problem and the 8CTL modelchecking problem are decidable for 2D rectangular automata. 1 Introduction A labeled graph G = (V; E;A; hh\Deltaii) consist of a (possibly infinite) set V of vertices, a set E ` V 2 of edges, a set A of labels, and a function hh\Deltaii : V ! A that maps each vertex v to a label hh...
Translation Validation
, 1998
"... We present the notion of translation validation as a new approach to the verification of translators (compilers, code generators). Rather than proving in advance that the compiler always produces a target code which correctly implements the source code (compiler verification), each individual transl ..."
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Cited by 140 (10 self)
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We present the notion of translation validation as a new approach to the verification of translators (compilers, code generators). Rather than proving in advance that the compiler always produces a target code which correctly implements the source code (compiler verification), each individual translation (i.e. a run of the compiler) is followed by a validation phase which verifies that the target code produced on this run correctly implements the submitted source program. Several ingredients are necessary to set up the  fully automatic  translation validation process, among which are: 1. A common semantic framework for the representation of the source code and the generated target code. 2. A formalization of the notion of "correct implementation" as a refinement relation. 3. A syntactic simulationbased proof method which allows to automatically verify that one model of the semantic framework, representing the produced target code, correctly implements another model which repres...
Property preserving abstractions for the verification of concurrent systems
 FORMAL METHODS IN SYSTEM DESIGN, VOL 6, ISS
, 1995
"... We study property preserving transformations for reactive systems. The main idea is the use of simulations parameterized by Galois connections ( �), relating the lattices of properties of two systems. We propose and study a notion of preservation of properties expressed by formulas of a logic, by a ..."
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Cited by 136 (4 self)
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We study property preserving transformations for reactive systems. The main idea is the use of simulations parameterized by Galois connections ( �), relating the lattices of properties of two systems. We propose and study a notion of preservation of properties expressed by formulas of a logic, by a function mapping sets of states of a system S into sets of states of a system S'. We give results on the preservation of properties expressed in sublanguages of the branching timecalculus when two systems S and S' are related via h � isimulations. They can be used to verify a property for a system by verifying the same property on a simpler system which is an abstraction of it. We show also under which conditions abstraction of concurrent systems can be computed from the abstraction of their components. This allows a compositional application of the proposed verification method. This is a revised version of the papers [2] and [16] � the results are fully developed in [27].
Forward and Backward Simulations Part I: Untimed Systems
 Information and Computation
, 1995
"... A unified, comprehensive presentation of simulation techniques for verification of concurrent systems is given, in terms of a simple untimed automaton model. In particular, (1) refinements, (2) forward and backward simulations, (3) hybrid forwardbackward and backwardforward simulations, and (4) hi ..."
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Cited by 134 (18 self)
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A unified, comprehensive presentation of simulation techniques for verification of concurrent systems is given, in terms of a simple untimed automaton model. In particular, (1) refinements, (2) forward and backward simulations, (3) hybrid forwardbackward and backwardforward simulations, and (4) history and prophecy relations are defined. History and prophecy relations are abstract versions of the history and prophecy variables of Abadi and Lamport, as well as the auxiliary variables of Owicki and Gries. Relationships between the different types of simulations, as well as soundness and completeness results, are stated and proved. Finally, it is shown how invariants can be incorporated into all the simulations. Even though many results are presented here for the first time, this paper can also be read as a survey (in a simple setting) of the research literature on simulation techniques. The development for untimed automata is designed to support a similar development for timed automata...
Trace Refinement of Action Systems
 Structured Programming
, 1994
"... . Action systems provide a general description of reactive systems, capable of modeling terminating, aborting and infinitely repeating systems. Arbitrary sequential program statements can be used to describe the behavior of atomic actions. Action systems are used to extend program refinement methods ..."
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Cited by 100 (20 self)
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. Action systems provide a general description of reactive systems, capable of modeling terminating, aborting and infinitely repeating systems. Arbitrary sequential program statements can be used to describe the behavior of atomic actions. Action systems are used to extend program refinement methods for sequential programs to parallel and reactive system refinement. We give here a behavioral semantics of action systems in terms of execution traces, and define refinement of action systems in terms of this semantics. We give a simulation based proof rule for action system refinement in a reactive context, and illustrate the use of this rule with an example. The proof rule is complete under certain restrictions. 1 Introduction An action system describes the behavior of a parallel system in terms of the atomic actions that can take place during the execution of the system. Action systems provide a general description of reactive systems, capable of modeling systems that may or may not ter...