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500
The NPcompleteness column: an ongoing guide
 Journal of Algorithms
, 1985
"... This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & ..."
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Cited by 196 (0 self)
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This is the nineteenth edition of a (usually) quarterly column that covers new developments in the theory of NPcompleteness. The presentation is modeled on that used by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NPCompleteness,’ ’ W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed, and, when appropriate, crossreferences will be given to that book and the list of problems (NPcomplete and harder) presented there. Readers who have results they would like mentioned (NPhardness, PSPACEhardness, polynomialtimesolvability, etc.) or open problems they would like publicized, should
On the Solution of Traveling Salesman Problems
 DOC. MATH. J. DMV
, 1998
"... Following the theoretical studies of J.B. Robinson and H.W. Kuhn in the late 1940s and the early 1950s, G.B. Dantzig, R. Fulkerson, and S.M. Johnson demonstrated in 1954 that large instances of the TSP could be solved by linear programming. Their approach remains the only known tool for solving TS ..."
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Cited by 176 (7 self)
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Following the theoretical studies of J.B. Robinson and H.W. Kuhn in the late 1940s and the early 1950s, G.B. Dantzig, R. Fulkerson, and S.M. Johnson demonstrated in 1954 that large instances of the TSP could be solved by linear programming. Their approach remains the only known tool for solving TSP instances with more than several hundred cities; over the years, it has evolved further through the work of M. Grötschel , S. Hong , M. Jünger , P. Miliotis , D. Naddef , M. Padberg
Unit Disk Graph Recognition is NPHard
 Computational Geometry. Theory and Applications
, 1993
"... Unit disk graphs are the intersection graphs of unit diameter closed disks in the plane. This paper reduces SATISFIABILITY to the problem of recognizing unit disk graphs. Equivalently, it shows that determining if a graph has sphericity 2 or less, even if the graph is planar or is known to have s ..."
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Cited by 94 (2 self)
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Unit disk graphs are the intersection graphs of unit diameter closed disks in the plane. This paper reduces SATISFIABILITY to the problem of recognizing unit disk graphs. Equivalently, it shows that determining if a graph has sphericity 2 or less, even if the graph is planar or is known to have sphericity at most 3, is NPhard. We show how this reduction can be extended to 3 dimensions, thereby showing that unit sphere graph recognition, or determining if a graph has sphericity 3 or less, is also NPhard. We conjecture that Ksphericity is NPhard for all fixed K greater than 1. 1 Introduction A unit disk graph is the intersection graph of a set of unit diameter closed disks in the plane. That is, each vertex corresponds to a disk in the plane, and two vertices are adjacent in the graph if the corresponding disks intersect. The set of disks is said to realize the graph. Of course, the unit of distance is not critical, since the disks realize the same graph even if the coordina...
Modular Decomposition and Transitive Orientation
, 1999
"... A module of an undirected graph is a set X of nodes such for each node x not in X, either every member of X is adjacent to x, or no member of X is adjacent to x. There is a canonical linearspace representation for the modules of a graph, called the modular decomposition. Closely related to modular ..."
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Cited by 93 (12 self)
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A module of an undirected graph is a set X of nodes such for each node x not in X, either every member of X is adjacent to x, or no member of X is adjacent to x. There is a canonical linearspace representation for the modules of a graph, called the modular decomposition. Closely related to modular decomposition is the transitive orientation problem, which is the problem of assigning a direction to each edge of a graph so that the resulting digraph is transitive. A graph is a comparability graph if such an assignment is possible. We give O(n +m) algorithms for modular decomposition and transitive orientation, where n and m are the number of vertices and edges of the graph. This gives linear time bounds for recognizing permutation graphs, maximum clique and minimum vertex coloring on comparability graphs, and other combinatorial problems on comparability graphs and their complements.
Complexity and Algorithms for Reasoning About Time: A GraphTheoretic Approach
, 1992
"... Temporal events are regarded here as intervals on a time line. This paper deals with problems in reasoning about such intervals when the precise topological relationship between them is unknown or only partially specified. This work unifies notions of interval algebras in artificial intelligence ..."
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Cited by 90 (11 self)
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Temporal events are regarded here as intervals on a time line. This paper deals with problems in reasoning about such intervals when the precise topological relationship between them is unknown or only partially specified. This work unifies notions of interval algebras in artificial intelligence with those of interval orders and interval graphs in combinatorics. The satisfiability, minimal labeling, all solutions and all realizations problems are considered for temporal (interval) data. Several versions are investigated by restricting the possible interval relationships yielding different complexity results. We show that even when the temporal data comprises of subsets of relations based on intersection and precedence only, the satisfiability question is NPcomplete. On the positive side, we give efficient algorithms for several restrictions of the problem. In the process, the interval graph sandwich problem is introduced, and is shown to be NPcomplete. This problem is als...
Upward Planarity Testing
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1995
"... Acyclic digraphs, such as the covering digraphs of ordered sets, are usually drawn upward, i.e., with the edges monotonically increasing in the vertical direction. A digraph is upward planar if it admits an upward planar drawing. In this survey paper, we overview the literature on the problem of upw ..."
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Cited by 82 (15 self)
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Acyclic digraphs, such as the covering digraphs of ordered sets, are usually drawn upward, i.e., with the edges monotonically increasing in the vertical direction. A digraph is upward planar if it admits an upward planar drawing. In this survey paper, we overview the literature on the problem of upward planarity testing. We present several characterizations of upward planarity and describe upward planarity testing algorithms for special classes of digraphs, such as embedded digraphs and singlesource digraphs. We also sketch the proof of NPcompleteness of upward planarity testing.
Drawing Planar Graphs Using the Canonical Ordering
 ALGORITHMICA
, 1996
"... We introduce a new method to optimize the required area, minimum angle and number of bends of planar drawings of graphs on a grid. The main tool is a new type of ordering on the vertices and faces of triconnected planar graphs. Using this method linear time and space algorithms can be designed for m ..."
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Cited by 68 (0 self)
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We introduce a new method to optimize the required area, minimum angle and number of bends of planar drawings of graphs on a grid. The main tool is a new type of ordering on the vertices and faces of triconnected planar graphs. Using this method linear time and space algorithms can be designed for many graph drawing problems.  Every triconnected planar graph G can be drawn convexly with straight lines on an (2n \Gamma 4) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid, where n is the number of vertices.  Every triconnected planar graph with maximum degree four can be drawn orthogonally on an n \Theta n grid with at most d 3n 2 e + 4, and if n ? 6 then every edge has at most two bends.  Every 3planar graph G can be drawn with at most b n 2 c + 1 bends on an b n 2 c \Theta b n 2 c grid.  Every triconnected planar graph G can be drawn planar on an (2n \Gamma 6) \Theta (3n \Gamma 9) grid with minimum angle larger than 2 d radians and at most 5n \Gamma 15 bends, with d the maximum d...
LexBFS and partition refinement, with applications to transitive orientation, interval graph recognition and consecutive ones testing
, 2000
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Maintenance of a Minimum Spanning Forest in a Dynamic Plane Graph
, 1992
"... We give an efficient algorithm for maintaining a minimum spanning forest of a plane graph subject to online modifications. The modifications supported include changes in the edge weights, and insertion and deletion of edges and vertices which are consistent with the given embedding. Our algorithm r ..."
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Cited by 66 (25 self)
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We give an efficient algorithm for maintaining a minimum spanning forest of a plane graph subject to online modifications. The modifications supported include changes in the edge weights, and insertion and deletion of edges and vertices which are consistent with the given embedding. Our algorithm runs in O(log n) time per operation and O(n) space.
private communication
"... A rigid interval graph is an interval graph which has only one clique tree. In 2009, Panda and Das show that all connected unit interval graphs are rigid interval graphs. Generalizing the two classic graph search algorithms, Lexicographic BreadthFirst Search (LBFS) and Maximum Cardinality Search (M ..."
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Cited by 65 (4 self)
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A rigid interval graph is an interval graph which has only one clique tree. In 2009, Panda and Das show that all connected unit interval graphs are rigid interval graphs. Generalizing the two classic graph search algorithms, Lexicographic BreadthFirst Search (LBFS) and Maximum Cardinality Search (MCS), Corneil and Krueger propose in 2008 the socalled Maximal Neighborhood Search (MNS) and show that one sweep of MNS is enough to recognize chordal graphs. We develop the MNS properties of rigid interval graphs and characterize this graph class in several different ways. This allows us obtain several linear time multisweep MNS algorithms for recognizing rigid interval graphs and unit interval graphs, generalizing a corresponding 3sweep LBFS algorithm for unit interval graph recognition designed by Corneil in 2004. For unit interval graphs, we even present a new linear time 2sweep MNS certifying recognition algorithm. Submitted: