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COMMON VALUES OF THE ARITHMETIC FUNCTIONS φ AND σ
"... ABSTRACT. We show that the equation φ(a) = σ(b) has infinitely many solutions, where φ is Euler’s totient function and σ is the sumofdivisors function. This proves a 50year old conjecture of Erdős. Moreover, we show that there are infinitely many integers n such that φ(a) = n and σ(b) = n each ..."
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ABSTRACT. We show that the equation φ(a) = σ(b) has infinitely many solutions, where φ is Euler’s totient function and σ is the sumofdivisors function. This proves a 50year old conjecture of Erdős. Moreover, we show that there are infinitely many integers n such that φ(a) = n and σ(b) = n each have more than n c solutions, for some c> 0. The proofs rely on the recent work of the first two authors and Konyagin on the distribution of primes p for which a given prime divides some iterate of φ at p, and on a result of HeathBrown connecting the possible existence of Siegel zeros with the distribution of twin primes. 1.
PRIME CHAINS AND PRATT TREES
"... ABSTRACT. We study the distribution of prime chains, which are sequences p1,..., pk of primes for which pj+1 ≡ 1 (mod pj) for each j. We first give conditional upper bounds on the length of Cunningham chains, chains with pj+1 = 2pj +1 for each j. We give estimates for P (x), the number of chains wit ..."
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ABSTRACT. We study the distribution of prime chains, which are sequences p1,..., pk of primes for which pj+1 ≡ 1 (mod pj) for each j. We first give conditional upper bounds on the length of Cunningham chains, chains with pj+1 = 2pj +1 for each j. We give estimates for P (x), the number of chains with pk � x (k variable), and P (x; p), the number of chains with p1 = p and pk � px. The majority of the paper concerns the distribution of H(p), the length of the longest chain with pk = p, which is also the height of the Pratt tree for p. We show H(p) � c log log p and H(p) � (log p) 1−c′ for almost all p, with c, c ′ explicit positive constants. We can take, for any ε> 0, c = e − ε assuming the ElliottHalberstam conjecture. A stochastic model of the Pratt tree is introduced and analyzed. The model suggests that for most p � x, H(p) stays very close to e log log x. 1.
Divisibility, Smoothness and Cryptographic Applications
, 2008
"... This paper deals with products of moderatesize primes, familiarly known as smooth numbers. Smooth numbers play an crucial role in information theory, signal processing and cryptography. We present various properties of smooth numbers relating to their enumeration, distribution and occurrence in var ..."
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This paper deals with products of moderatesize primes, familiarly known as smooth numbers. Smooth numbers play an crucial role in information theory, signal processing and cryptography. We present various properties of smooth numbers relating to their enumeration, distribution and occurrence in various integer sequences. We then turn our attention to cryptographic applications in which smooth numbers play a pivotal role. 1 1
SIEVING VERY THIN SETS OF PRIMES, AND PRATT TREES WITH MISSING PRIMES
"... ABSTRACT. Suppose P is a set of primes, such that for every p ∈ P, every prime factor of p − 1 is also in P. We apply a new sieve method to show that either P contains all of the primes or the counting function of P is O(x 1−c) for some c> 0, where c depends only on the smallest prime not in P. Our ..."
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ABSTRACT. Suppose P is a set of primes, such that for every p ∈ P, every prime factor of p − 1 is also in P. We apply a new sieve method to show that either P contains all of the primes or the counting function of P is O(x 1−c) for some c> 0, where c depends only on the smallest prime not in P. Our proof makes use of results connected with Artin’s primitive root conjecture. 1