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Rule formats for determinism and idempotence
 In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Fundamentals of Software Engineering (FSEN’09), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Kish Island
, 2009
"... Abstract. Determinism is a semantic property of (a fragment of) a language that specifies that a program cannot evolve operationally in several different ways. Idempotency is a property of binary composition operators requiring that the composition of two identical specifications or programs will re ..."
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Cited by 9 (7 self)
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Abstract. Determinism is a semantic property of (a fragment of) a language that specifies that a program cannot evolve operationally in several different ways. Idempotency is a property of binary composition operators requiring that the composition of two identical specifications or programs will result in a piece of specification or program that is equivalent to the original components. In this paper, we propose two (related) metatheorems for guaranteeing determinism and idempotency of binary operators. These metatheorems are formulated in terms of syntactic templates for operational semantics, called rule formats. We show the applicability of our formats by applying them to various operational semantics from the literature. 1
Reniers. A rule format for unit elements
, 2009
"... Abstract. This paper offers a metatheorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left or rightunit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the general ..."
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Cited by 7 (6 self)
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Abstract. This paper offers a metatheorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left or rightunit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi. 1
A Rule Format for Associativity
"... Abstract. We propose a rule format that guarantees associativity of binary operators with respect to all notions of behavioral equivalence that are defined in terms of (im)possibility of transitions, e.g., the notions below strong bisimilarity in van Glabbeek’s spectrum. The initial format is a subs ..."
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Cited by 6 (5 self)
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Abstract. We propose a rule format that guarantees associativity of binary operators with respect to all notions of behavioral equivalence that are defined in terms of (im)possibility of transitions, e.g., the notions below strong bisimilarity in van Glabbeek’s spectrum. The initial format is a subset of the De Simone format. We show that all trivial generalizations of our format are bound for failure. We further extend the format in a few directions and illustrate its application to several formalisms in the literature. A subset of the format is studied to obtain associativity with respect to graph isomorphism. 1
Synthesizing Glue Operators from Glue Constraints for the Construction of ComponentBased Systems
"... Abstract. We study glue operators used in componentbased frameworks to obtain systems as the composition of atomic components described as labeled transition systems (LTS). Glue operators map tuples of LTS into LTS. They restrict the behavior of their arguments by performing memoryless coordination ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract. We study glue operators used in componentbased frameworks to obtain systems as the composition of atomic components described as labeled transition systems (LTS). Glue operators map tuples of LTS into LTS. They restrict the behavior of their arguments by performing memoryless coordination. In a previous paper, we have proposed a simple format for SOS rules that captures, in particular, glue operators from known frameworks such as CCS, SCCS, CSP, and BIP. This paper studies a new way for characterizing glue operators: as boolean glue constraints between interactions (sets of ports) and the state of the coordinated components. We provide an SOS format for glue, which allows a natural correspondence between glue operators and glue constraints. This correspondence is used for automated synthesis of glue operators implementing given glue constraints. By focusing on the properties that do not bear computation, we reduce a very hard (and, in general, undecidable) problem of synthesizing controllers to a tractable one. The examples in the paper show that such properties are natural and can be expressed as glue constraints in a straightforward manner. Finally, we compare expressiveness of the proposed formalisms with the glue used in the BIP framework and discuss possible applications. 1
Dogfooding the Structural Operational Semantics of mCRL2
"... The mCRL2 language is a formal specification language that is used to specify and model the behavior of distributed systems and protocols. With the accompanying toolset, it is possible to simulate, visualize, analyze and verify behavioral properties of mCRL2 models automatically. The semantics of th ..."
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The mCRL2 language is a formal specification language that is used to specify and model the behavior of distributed systems and protocols. With the accompanying toolset, it is possible to simulate, visualize, analyze and verify behavioral properties of mCRL2 models automatically. The semantics of the mCRL2 language is defined formally using Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) but implemented manually in the underlying toolset using C++. Like with most formal languages, the underlying toolset was created with the formal semantics in mind but there is no way to actually guarantee that the implementation matches the intended semantics. To validate that the implemented behavior for the mCRL2 language corresponds to its formal semantics, we describe the SOS deduction rules of the mCRL2 language, and perform the transformation from the mCRL2’s SOS deduction rules to a Linear Process Specification. As our transformation directly takes the SOS deduction rules and transforms them into mCRL2 data equations, we are basically feeding the mCRL2 toolset its own formal language definition.
Rule Formats for Distributivity ⋆
"... Abstract. This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of leftdistributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats. 1 ..."
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Abstract. This paper proposes rule formats for Structural Operational Semantics guaranteeing that certain binary operators are left distributive with respect to a set of binary operators. Examples of leftdistributivity laws from the literature are shown to be instances of the provided formats. 1
Incremental patternbased coinduction for process algebra and its Isabelle formalization
"... Abstract. We present a coinductive proof system for bisimilarity in transition systems specifiable in the de Simone SOS format. Our coinduction is incremental, in that it allows building incrementally an a priori unknown bisimulation, and patternbased, in that it works on equalities of process patt ..."
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Abstract. We present a coinductive proof system for bisimilarity in transition systems specifiable in the de Simone SOS format. Our coinduction is incremental, in that it allows building incrementally an a priori unknown bisimulation, and patternbased, in that it works on equalities of process patterns (i.e., universally quantified equations of process terms containing process variables), thus taking advantage of equational reasoning in a “circular ” manner, inside coinductive proof loops. The proof system has been formalized and proved sound in Isabelle/HOL. 1
A Notion of Glue Expressiveness for ComponentBased Systems
"... Abstract. Comparison between different formalisms and models is often by flattening structure and reducing them to behaviorally equivalent models e.g., automaton and Turing machine. This leads to a notion of expressiveness which is not adequate for componentbased systems where separation between be ..."
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Abstract. Comparison between different formalisms and models is often by flattening structure and reducing them to behaviorally equivalent models e.g., automaton and Turing machine. This leads to a notion of expressiveness which is not adequate for componentbased systems where separation between behavior and coordination mechanisms is essential. The paper proposes a notion of glue expressiveness for componentbased frameworks characterizing their ability to coordinate components. Glue is a closed under composition set of operators mapping tuples of behavior into behavior. Glue operators preserve behavioral equivalence. They only restrict the behavior of their arguments by performing memoryless coordination. Behavioral equivalence induces an equivalence on glue operators. We compare expressiveness of two glues G 1 and G 2 by considering whether glue operators of G 1 have equivalent ones in G 2 (strong expressiveness). Weak expressiveness is defined by allowing a finite number of additional behaviors in the arguments of operators of G 2. We propose an SOSstyle definition of glues, where operators are characterized as sets of SOSrules specifying the transition relation of composite components from the transition relations of their constituents. We provide expressiveness results for the glues of BIP and of process algebras such as CCS, CSP and SCCS. We show that for the considered expressiveness criteria, glues of the considered process calculi are less expressive than general SOS glue. Furthermore, glue of BIP has exactly the same strong expressiveness as glue definable by the SOS characterization. 1
SOS Rule Formats for Idempotent Terms and Idempotent Unary Operators ⋆
"... Abstract. A unary operator f is idempotent if the equation f(x) = f(f(x)) holds. On the other end, an element a of an algebra is said to be an idempotent for a binary operator ⊙ if a = a ⊙ a. This paper presents a rule format for Structural Operational Semantics that guarantees that a unary operator ..."
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Abstract. A unary operator f is idempotent if the equation f(x) = f(f(x)) holds. On the other end, an element a of an algebra is said to be an idempotent for a binary operator ⊙ if a = a ⊙ a. This paper presents a rule format for Structural Operational Semantics that guarantees that a unary operator be idempotent modulo bisimilarity. The proposed rule format relies on a companion one ensuring that certain terms are idempotent with respect to some binary operator. This study also offers a variety of examples showing the applicability of both formats. 1