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52
UMAC: Fast and Secure Message Authentication
, 1999
"... Abstract. We describe a message authentication algorithm, UMAC, which can authenticate messages (in software, on contemporary machines) roughly an order of magnitude faster than current practice (e.g., HMACSHA1), and about twice as fast as times previously reported for the universal hashfunction f ..."
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Cited by 111 (14 self)
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Abstract. We describe a message authentication algorithm, UMAC, which can authenticate messages (in software, on contemporary machines) roughly an order of magnitude faster than current practice (e.g., HMACSHA1), and about twice as fast as times previously reported for the universal hashfunction family MMH. To achieve such speeds, UMAC uses a new universal hashfunction family, NH, and a design which allows effective exploitation of SIMD parallelism. The “cryptographic ” work of UMAC is done using standard primitives of the user’s choice, such as a block cipher or cryptographic hash function; no new heuristic primitives are developed here. Instead, the security of UMAC is rigorously proven, in the sense of giving exact and quantitatively strong results which demonstrate an inability to forge UMACauthenticated messages assuming an inability to break the underlying cryptographic primitive. Unlike conventional, inherently serial MACs, UMAC is parallelizable, and will have everfaster implementation speeds as machines offer up increasing amounts of parallelism. We envision UMAC as a practical algorithm for nextgeneration message authentication. 1
HAIL: A HighAvailability and Integrity Layer for Cloud Storage
, 2009
"... We introduce HAIL (HighAvailability and Integrity Layer), a distributed cryptographic system that permits a set of servers to prove to a client that a stored file is intact and retrievable. HAIL strengthens, formally unifies, and streamlines distinct approaches from the cryptographic and distribute ..."
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Cited by 79 (1 self)
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We introduce HAIL (HighAvailability and Integrity Layer), a distributed cryptographic system that permits a set of servers to prove to a client that a stored file is intact and retrievable. HAIL strengthens, formally unifies, and streamlines distinct approaches from the cryptographic and distributedsystems communities. Proofs in HAIL are efficiently computable by servers and highly compact— typically tens or hundreds of bytes, irrespective of file size. HAIL cryptographically verifies and reactively reallocates file shares. It is robust against an active, mobile adversary, i.e., one that may progressively corrupt the full set of servers. We propose a strong, formal adversarial model for HAIL, and rigorous analysis and parameter choices. We show how HAIL improves on the security and efficiency of existing tools, like Proofs of Retrievability (PORs) deployed on individual servers. We also report on a prototype implementation. 1
Bucket Hashing and its Application to Fast Message Authentication
, 1995
"... We introduce a new technique for constructing a family of universal hash functions. ..."
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Cited by 51 (4 self)
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We introduce a new technique for constructing a family of universal hash functions.
CBC MAC for RealTime Data Sources
 JOURNAL OF CRYPTOLOGY
, 1997
"... The Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Message Authentication Code (MAC) is an authentication method which is widely used in practice. It is well known that the naive use of CBC MAC for variable length messages is not secure, and a few rules of thumb for the correct use of CBC MAC are known by folklore. ..."
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Cited by 44 (0 self)
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The Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Message Authentication Code (MAC) is an authentication method which is widely used in practice. It is well known that the naive use of CBC MAC for variable length messages is not secure, and a few rules of thumb for the correct use of CBC MAC are known by folklore. The first rigorous proof of the security of CBC MAC, when used on fixed length messages, was given only recently by Bellare, Kilian and Rogaway [3]. They also suggested variants of CBC MAC that handle variable length messages but in these variants the length of the message has to be known in advance (i.e., before the message is processed). We study CBC authentication of real time applications in which the length of the message is not known until the message ends, and furthermore, since the application is realtime, it is not possible to start processing the authentication only after the message ends. We first present a variant of CBC MAC, called double MAC (DMAC) which handles messages of variable unknown lengths. Computing DMAC on a message is virtually as simple and as efficient as computing the standard CBC MAC on the message. We provide a rigorous proof that its security is implied by the security of the underlying block cipher. Next, we argue that the basic CBC MAC is secure when applied to prefix free message space. A message space can be made prefix free by authenticating also the (usually hidden) last character which marks the end of the message.
The Security and Performance of the Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) of Operation
 In INDOCRYPT, volume 3348 of LNCS
, 2004
"... The recently introduced Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) of operation for block ciphers provides both encryption and message authentication, using universal hashing based on multiplication in a binary finite field. We analyze its security and performance, and show that it is the most e#cient mode of op ..."
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Cited by 38 (3 self)
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The recently introduced Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) of operation for block ciphers provides both encryption and message authentication, using universal hashing based on multiplication in a binary finite field. We analyze its security and performance, and show that it is the most e#cient mode of operation for high speed packet networks, by using a realistic model of a network crypto module and empirical data from studies of Internet tra#c in conjunction with software experiments and hardware designs. GCM has several useful features: it can accept IVs of arbitrary length, can act as a standalone message authentication code (MAC), and can be used as an incremental MAC. We show that GCM is secure in the standard model of concrete security, even when these features are used. We also consider several of its important systemsecurity aspects.
The Poly1305AES messageauthentication code
 In Proc. FSE
, 2005
"... Abstract. Poly1305AES is a stateoftheart messageauthentication code suitable for a wide variety of applications. Poly1305AES computes a 16byte authenticator of a variablelength message, using a 16byte AES key, a 16byte additional key, and a 16byte nonce. The security of Poly1305AES is ve ..."
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Cited by 37 (12 self)
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Abstract. Poly1305AES is a stateoftheart messageauthentication code suitable for a wide variety of applications. Poly1305AES computes a 16byte authenticator of a variablelength message, using a 16byte AES key, a 16byte additional key, and a 16byte nonce. The security of Poly1305AES is very close to the security of AES; the security gap is at most 14D⌈L/16⌉/2 106 if messages have at most L bytes, the attacker sees at most 2 64 authenticated messages, and the attacker attempts D forgeries. Poly1305AES can be computed at extremely high speed: for example, fewer than 3.625(ℓ + 170) Athlon cycles for an ℓbyte message. This speed is achieved without precomputation; consequently, 1000 keys can be handled simultaneously without cache misses. Specialpurpose hardware can compute Poly1305AES at even higher speed. Poly1305AES is parallelizable, incremental, and not subject to any intellectualproperty claims.
CWC: A highperformance conventional authenticated encryption mode
 Proceedings of FSE 2004, LNCS 3017
, 2004
"... Abstract. We introduce CWC, a new block cipher mode of operation for protecting both the privacy and the authenticity of encapsulated data. CWC is currently the only such mode having all five of the following properties: provable security, parallelizability, high performance in hardware, high perfor ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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Abstract. We introduce CWC, a new block cipher mode of operation for protecting both the privacy and the authenticity of encapsulated data. CWC is currently the only such mode having all five of the following properties: provable security, parallelizability, high performance in hardware, high performance in software, and no intellectual property concerns. We believe that having all five of these properties makes CWC a powerful tool for use in many performancecritical cryptographic applications. CWC is also the only appropriate solution for some applications; e.g., standardization bodies like the IETF and NIST prefer patentfree modes, and CWC is the only such mode capable of processing data at 10Gbps in hardware, which will be important for future IPsec (and other) network devices. As part of our design, we also introduce a new parallelizable universal hash function optimized for performance in both hardware and software.
FloatingPoint Arithmetic And Message Authentication
, 2000
"... There is a wellknown class of message authentication systems guaranteeing that attackers will have a negligible chance of successfully forging a message. This paper shows how one of these systems can hash messages at extremely high speed  much more quickly than previous systems at the same securi ..."
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Cited by 28 (8 self)
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There is a wellknown class of message authentication systems guaranteeing that attackers will have a negligible chance of successfully forging a message. This paper shows how one of these systems can hash messages at extremely high speed  much more quickly than previous systems at the same security level  using IEEE floatingpoint arithmetic. This paper also presents a survey of the literature in a unified mathematical framework.
Software performance of universal hash functions
 In Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT ’99
, 1999
"... Abstract. This paper compares the parameters sizes and software performance of several recent constructions for universal hash functions: bucket hashing, polynomial hashing, Toeplitz hashing, division hashing, evaluation hashing, and MMH hashing. An objective comparison between these widely varying ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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Abstract. This paper compares the parameters sizes and software performance of several recent constructions for universal hash functions: bucket hashing, polynomial hashing, Toeplitz hashing, division hashing, evaluation hashing, and MMH hashing. An objective comparison between these widely varying approaches is achieved by defining constructions that offer a comparable security level. It is also demonstrated how the security of these constructions compares favorably to existing MAC algorithms, the security of which is less understood. 1
LubyRackoff backwards: Increasing security by making block ciphers noninvertible
 ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGYEUROCRYPT '98 PROCEEDINGS
, 1998
"... We argue that the invertibility of a block cipher can reduce the security of schemes that use it, and a better starting point for scheme design is the noninvertible analog of a block cipher, that is, a pseudorandom function (PRF). Since a block cipher may be viewed as a pseudorandom permutation, ..."
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Cited by 22 (2 self)
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We argue that the invertibility of a block cipher can reduce the security of schemes that use it, and a better starting point for scheme design is the noninvertible analog of a block cipher, that is, a pseudorandom function (PRF). Since a block cipher may be viewed as a pseudorandom permutation, we are led to investigate the reverse of the problem studied by Luby and Rackoff, and ask: "how can one transform a PRP into a PRF in as securitypreserving a way as possible?" The solution we propose is datadependent rekeying. As an illustrative special case, let E:f0; 1g nf0;1g n!f0;1g n be the block cipher. Then we can construct the PRF F from the PRP E by setting F (k; x) =E(E(k; x);x). We generalize this to allow for arbitrary block and key lengths, and to improve e ciency. We prove strong quantitative bounds on the value of datadependent rekeying in the Shannon model of an ideal cipher, and take some initial steps towards an analysis in the standard model.