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Training Support Vector Machines: an Application to Face Detection
, 1997
"... We investigate the application of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in computer vision. SVM is a learning technique developed by V. Vapnik and his team (AT&T Bell Labs.) that can be seen as a new method for training polynomial, neural network, or Radial Basis Functions classifiers. The decision surface ..."
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Cited by 561 (1 self)
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We investigate the application of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in computer vision. SVM is a learning technique developed by V. Vapnik and his team (AT&T Bell Labs.) that can be seen as a new method for training polynomial, neural network, or Radial Basis Functions classifiers. The decision surfaces are found by solving a linearly constrained quadratic programming problem. This optimization problem is challenging because the quadratic form is completely dense and the memory requirements grow with the square of the number of data points. We present a decomposition algorithm that guarantees global optimality, and can be used to train SVM's over very large data sets. The main idea behind the decomposition is the iterative solution of subproblems and the evaluation of optimality conditions which are used both to generate improved iterative values, and also establish the stopping criteria for the algorithm. We present experimental results of our implementation of SVM, and demonstrate the ...
An Efficient Boosting Algorithm for Combining Preferences
, 1999
"... The problem of combining preferences arises in several applications, such as combining the results of different search engines. This work describes an efficient algorithm for combining multiple preferences. We first give a formal framework for the problem. We then describe and analyze a new boosting ..."
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Cited by 515 (18 self)
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The problem of combining preferences arises in several applications, such as combining the results of different search engines. This work describes an efficient algorithm for combining multiple preferences. We first give a formal framework for the problem. We then describe and analyze a new boosting algorithm for combining preferences called RankBoost. We also describe an efficient implementation of the algorithm for certain natural cases. We discuss two experiments we carried out to assess the performance of RankBoost. In the first experiment, we used the algorithm to combine different WWW search strategies, each of which is a query expansion for a given domain. For this task, we compare the performance of RankBoost to the individual search strategies. The second experiment is a collaborativefiltering task for making movie recommendations. Here, we present results comparing RankBoost to nearestneighbor and regression algorithms.
Support Vector Machine Active Learning with Applications to Text Classification
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2001
"... Support vector machines have met with significant success in numerous realworld learning tasks. However, like most machine learning algorithms, they are generally applied using a randomly selected training set classified in advance. In many settings, we also have the option of using poolbased acti ..."
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Cited by 502 (4 self)
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Support vector machines have met with significant success in numerous realworld learning tasks. However, like most machine learning algorithms, they are generally applied using a randomly selected training set classified in advance. In many settings, we also have the option of using poolbased active learning. Instead of using a randomly selected training set, the learner has access to a pool of unlabeled instances and can request the labels for some number of them. We introduce a new algorithm for performing active learning with support vector machines, i.e., an algorithm for choosing which instances to request next. We provide a theoretical motivation for the algorithm using the notion of a version space. We present experimental results showing that employing our active learning method can significantly reduce the need for labeled training instances in both the standard inductive and transductive settings.
Inductive Learning Algorithms and Representations for Text Categorization
, 1998
"... Text categorization – the assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content – is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. We compare the effectiveness of five different automatic learning algorithms for text categori ..."
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Cited by 501 (9 self)
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Text categorization – the assignment of natural language texts to one or more predefined categories based on their content – is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. We compare the effectiveness of five different automatic learning algorithms for text categorization in terms of learning speed, realtime classification speed, and classification accuracy. We also examine training set size, and alternative document representations. Very accurate text classifiers can be learned automatically from training examples. Linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are particularly promising because they are very accurate, quick to train, and quick to evaluate. 1.1 Keywords Text categorization, classification, support vector machines, machine learning, information management.
A tutorial on support vector regression
, 2004
"... In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing ..."
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Cited by 473 (2 self)
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In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing with large datasets. Finally, we mention some modifications and extensions that have been applied to the standard SV algorithm, and discuss the aspect of regularization from a SV perspective.
Reducing Multiclass to Binary: A Unifying Approach for Margin Classifiers
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2000
"... We present a unifying framework for studying the solution of multiclass categorization problems by reducing them to multiple binary problems that are then solved using a marginbased binary learning algorithm. The proposed framework unifies some of the most popular approaches in which each class ..."
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Cited by 419 (20 self)
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We present a unifying framework for studying the solution of multiclass categorization problems by reducing them to multiple binary problems that are then solved using a marginbased binary learning algorithm. The proposed framework unifies some of the most popular approaches in which each class is compared against all others, or in which all pairs of classes are compared to each other, or in which output codes with errorcorrecting properties are used. We propose a general method for combining the classifiers generated on the binary problems, and we prove a general empirical multiclass loss bound given the empirical loss of the individual binary learning algorithms. The scheme and the corresponding bounds apply to many popular classification learning algorithms including supportvector machines, AdaBoost, regression, logistic regression and decisiontree algorithms. We also give a multiclass generalization error analysis for general output codes with AdaBoost as the binary learner. Experimental results with SVM and AdaBoost show that our scheme provides a viable alternative to the most commonly used multiclass algorithms.
A practical guide to support vector classification
, 2010
"... The support vector machine (SVM) is a popular classification technique. However, beginners who are not familiar with SVM often get unsatisfactory results since they miss some easy but significant steps. In this guide, we propose a simple procedure which usually gives reasonable results. ..."
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Cited by 417 (4 self)
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The support vector machine (SVM) is a popular classification technique. However, beginners who are not familiar with SVM often get unsatisfactory results since they miss some easy but significant steps. In this guide, we propose a simple procedure which usually gives reasonable results.
Large Margin Classification Using the Perceptron Algorithm
 Machine Learning
, 1998
"... We introduce and analyze a new algorithm for linear classification which combines Rosenblatt 's perceptron algorithm with Helmbold and Warmuth's leaveoneout method. Like Vapnik 's maximalmargin classifier, our algorithm takes advantage of data that are linearly separable with large margins. Compa ..."
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Cited by 415 (1 self)
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We introduce and analyze a new algorithm for linear classification which combines Rosenblatt 's perceptron algorithm with Helmbold and Warmuth's leaveoneout method. Like Vapnik 's maximalmargin classifier, our algorithm takes advantage of data that are linearly separable with large margins. Compared to Vapnik's algorithm, however, ours is much simpler to implement, and much more efficient in terms of computation time. We also show that our algorithm can be efficiently used in very high dimensional spaces using kernel functions. We performed some experiments using our algorithm, and some variants of it, for classifying images of handwritten digits. The performance of our algorithm is close to, but not as good as, the performance of maximalmargin classifiers on the same problem, while saving significantly on computation time and programming effort. 1 Introduction One of the most influential developments in the theory of machine learning in the last few years is Vapnik's work on supp...
Support Vector Machine Classification and Validation of Cancer Tissue Samples Using Microarray Expression Data
, 2000
"... Motivation: DNA microarray experiments generating thousands of gene expression measurements, are being used to gather information from tissue and cell samples regarding gene expression differences that will be useful in diagnosing disease. We have developed a new method to analyse this kind of data ..."
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Cited by 396 (1 self)
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Motivation: DNA microarray experiments generating thousands of gene expression measurements, are being used to gather information from tissue and cell samples regarding gene expression differences that will be useful in diagnosing disease. We have developed a new method to analyse this kind of data using support vector machines (SVMs). This analysis consists of both classification of the tissue samples, and an exploration of the data for mislabeled or questionable tissue results. Results: We demonstrate the method in detail on samples consisting of ovarian cancer tissues, normal ovarian tissues, and other normal tissues. The dataset consists of expression experiment results for 97 802 cDNAs for each tissue. As a result of computational analysis, a tissue sample is discovered and confirmed to be wrongly labeled. Upon correction of this mistake and the removal of an outlier, perfect classification of tissues is achieved, but not with high confidence. We identify and analyse a subset of genes from the ovarian dataset whose expression is highly differentiated between the types of tissues. To show robustness of the SVM method, two previously published datasets from other types of tissues or cells are analysed. The results are comparable to those previously obtained. We show that other machine learning methods also perform comparably to the SVM on many of those datasets. Availability: The SVM software is available at http:// www. cs.columbia.edu/#bgrundy/svm. Contact: booch@cse.ucsc.edu
An introduction to kernelbased learning algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 2001
"... This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines (SVMs), kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and ..."
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Cited by 373 (48 self)
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This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines (SVMs), kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and