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56
Simplified and Improved Resolution Lower Bounds
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 37TH IEEE FOCS
, 1996
"... We give simple new lower bounds on the lengths of Resolution proofs for the pigeonhole principle and for randomly generated formulas. For random formulas, our bounds significantly extend the range of formula sizes for which nontrivial lower bounds are known. For example, we show that with probabili ..."
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Cited by 102 (7 self)
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We give simple new lower bounds on the lengths of Resolution proofs for the pigeonhole principle and for randomly generated formulas. For random formulas, our bounds significantly extend the range of formula sizes for which nontrivial lower bounds are known. For example, we show that with probability approaching 1, any Resolution refutation of a randomly chosen 3CNF formula with at most n 6=5\Gammaffl clauses requires exponential size. Previous bounds applied only when the number of clauses was at most linear in the number of variables. For the pigeonhole principle our bound is a small improvement over previous bounds. Our proofs are more elementary than previous arguments, and establish a connection between Resolution proof size and maximum clause size.
Lower Bounds for Cutting Planes Proofs with Small Coefficients
, 1995
"... We consider smallweight Cutting Planes (CP ) proofs; that is, Cutting Planes (CP ) proofs with coefficients up to P oly(n). We use the well known lower bounds for monotone complexity to prove an exponential lower bound for the length of CP proofs, for a family of tautologies based on the cl ..."
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Cited by 77 (19 self)
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We consider smallweight Cutting Planes (CP ) proofs; that is, Cutting Planes (CP ) proofs with coefficients up to P oly(n). We use the well known lower bounds for monotone complexity to prove an exponential lower bound for the length of CP proofs, for a family of tautologies based on the clique function. Because Resolution is a special case of smallweight CP , our method also gives a new and simpler exponential lower bound for Resolution. We also prove the following two theorems : (1) Treelike CP proofs cannot polynomially simulate nontreelike CP proofs. (2) Treelike CP proofs and BoundeddepthFrege proofs cannot polynomially simulate each other. Our proofs also work for some generalizations of the CP proof system. In particular, they work for CP with a deduction rule, and also for proof systems that allow any formula with small communication complexity, and any set of sound rules of inference. 1 Introduction One of the most fundamental questions in pro...
An Exponential Lower Bound to the Size of Bounded Depth Frege . . .
, 1994
"... We prove lower bounds of the form exp (n ffl d ) ; ffl d ? 0; on the length of proofs of an explicit sequence of tautologies, based on the Pigeonhole Principle, in proof systems using formulas of depth d; for any constant d: This is the largest lower bound for the strongest proof system, for whic ..."
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Cited by 67 (10 self)
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We prove lower bounds of the form exp (n ffl d ) ; ffl d ? 0; on the length of proofs of an explicit sequence of tautologies, based on the Pigeonhole Principle, in proof systems using formulas of depth d; for any constant d: This is the largest lower bound for the strongest proof system, for which any superpolynomial lower bounds are known.
Resolution proofs of generalized pigeonhole principles
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1988
"... We extend results of A. Haken to give an exponential lower bound on the size of resolution proofs for propositional formulas encoding a generalized pigeonhole principle. These propositional formulas express the fact that there is no oneone mapping from c · n objects to n objects when c>1. As a coro ..."
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Cited by 51 (4 self)
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We extend results of A. Haken to give an exponential lower bound on the size of resolution proofs for propositional formulas encoding a generalized pigeonhole principle. These propositional formulas express the fact that there is no oneone mapping from c · n objects to n objects when c>1. As a corollary, resolution proof systems do not psimulate constant formula depth Frege proof systems. 1.
Lower Bounds For The Polynomial Calculus
, 1998
"... We show that polynomial calculus proofs (sometimes also called Groebner proofs) of the pigeonhole principle PHP n must have degree at least (n=2)+1 over any field. This is the first nontrivial lower bound on the degree of polynomial calculus proofs obtained without using unproved complexity assumpt ..."
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Cited by 49 (5 self)
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We show that polynomial calculus proofs (sometimes also called Groebner proofs) of the pigeonhole principle PHP n must have degree at least (n=2)+1 over any field. This is the first nontrivial lower bound on the degree of polynomial calculus proofs obtained without using unproved complexity assumptions. We also show that for some modifications of PHP n , expressible by polynomials of at most logarithmic degree, our bound can be improved to linear in the number of variables. Finally, we show that for any Boolean function f n in n variables, every polynomial calculus proof of the statement "f n cannot be computed by any circuit of size t," must have degree t=n). Loosely speaking, this means that low degree polynomial calculus proofs do not prove NP 6 P=poly.
A New Proof of the Weak Pigeonhole Principle
, 2000
"... The exact complexity of the weak pigeonhole principle is an old and fundamental problem in proof complexity. Using a diagonalization argument, Paris, Wilkie and Woods [16] showed how to prove the weak pigeonhole principle with boundeddepth, quasipolynomialsize proofs. Their argument was further re ..."
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Cited by 45 (3 self)
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The exact complexity of the weak pigeonhole principle is an old and fundamental problem in proof complexity. Using a diagonalization argument, Paris, Wilkie and Woods [16] showed how to prove the weak pigeonhole principle with boundeddepth, quasipolynomialsize proofs. Their argument was further refined by Kraj'icek [9]. In this paper, we present a new proof: we show that the the weak pigeonhole principle has quasipolynomialsize LK proofs where every formula consists of a single AND/OR of polylog fanin. Our proof is conceptually simpler than previous arguments, and is optimal with respect to depth. 1 Introduction The pigeonhole principle is a fundamental axiom of mathematics, stating that there is no onetoone mapping from m pigeons to n holes when m ? n. It expresses Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 136995815, U.S.A. alexis@clarkson.edu. Research supported by NSF grant CCR9877150. y Department of Computer Science, University o...
Upper and Lower Bounds for Treelike Cutting Planes Proofs
 In 9th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 1994
"... In this paper we study the complexity of Cutting Planes (CP) refutations, and treelike CP refutations. Treelike CP proofs are natural and still quite powerful. In particular, the propositional pigeonhole principle (PHP) has been shown to have polynomialsized treelike CP proofs. Our main result s ..."
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Cited by 41 (10 self)
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In this paper we study the complexity of Cutting Planes (CP) refutations, and treelike CP refutations. Treelike CP proofs are natural and still quite powerful. In particular, the propositional pigeonhole principle (PHP) has been shown to have polynomialsized treelike CP proofs. Our main result shows that a family of tautologies, introduced in this paper requires exponentialsized treelike CP proofs. We obtain this result by introducing a new method which relates the size of a CP refutation to the communication complexity of a related search problem. Because these tautologies have polynomialsized Frege proofs, it follows that treelike CP cannot polynomially simulate Frege systems. 1 Introduction An important open problem is to determine whether there exists a propositional proof system that admits short (polynomial size) proofs for all tautologies, or equivalently, whether or not NP equals coNP. In order to attack Research supported by NSF NYI grant CCR92570979 y Research su...
Resolution and the weak pigeonhole principle
 IN CSL
, 1997
"... We give new upper bounds for resolution proofs of the weak pigeonhole principle. We also give lower bounds for treelike resolution proofs. We present a normal form for resolution proofs of pigeonhole principles based on a new monotone resolution rule. ..."
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Cited by 36 (3 self)
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We give new upper bounds for resolution proofs of the weak pigeonhole principle. We also give lower bounds for treelike resolution proofs. We present a normal form for resolution proofs of pigeonhole principles based on a new monotone resolution rule.
Readonce branching programs, rectangular proofs of the pigeonhole principle and the transversal calculus
 in: Proceedings of the 29th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1997
"... We investigate readonce branching programs for the following search problem: given a Boolean m n matrix with m>n, nd either an allzero row, or two 1's in some column. Our primary motivation is that this models regular resolution proofs of the pigeonhole principle PHP m n, and that for m>n 2 no low ..."
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Cited by 34 (9 self)
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We investigate readonce branching programs for the following search problem: given a Boolean m n matrix with m>n, nd either an allzero row, or two 1's in some column. Our primary motivation is that this models regular resolution proofs of the pigeonhole principle PHP m n, and that for m>n 2 no lower bounds are known for the length of such proofs. We prove exponential lower bounds (for arbitrarily large m!) if we further restrict this model by requiring the branching program either
Lower Bounds for the Weak Pigeonhole Principle and Random Formulas beyond Resolution
, 2002
"... We work with an extension of Resolution, called Res(2), that allows clauses with conjunctions of two literals. In this system there are rules to introduce and eliminate such conjunctions. We prove that the weak pigeonhole principle PHP cn n and random unsatisfiable CNF formulas require exponentials ..."
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Cited by 34 (12 self)
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We work with an extension of Resolution, called Res(2), that allows clauses with conjunctions of two literals. In this system there are rules to introduce and eliminate such conjunctions. We prove that the weak pigeonhole principle PHP cn n and random unsatisfiable CNF formulas require exponentialsize proofs in this system. This is the strongest system beyond Resolution for which such lower bounds are known. As a consequence to the result about the weak pigeonhole principle, Res(log) is exponentially more powerful than Res(2). Also we prove that Resolution cannot polynomially simulate Res(2), and that Res(2) does not have feasible monotone interpolation solving an open problem posed by Krajcek.