Results 1  10
of
111
The Economics of Smoking
 in Handbook of Health Economics
, 2001
"... an adequate science of behavior should supply a satisfactory account of individual behavior which is responsible for the data of economics....B. F. Skinner (1953) The above quote addresses a point central to our discussion; namely, the relation between the behavior ofindividuals and groups. Traditi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 65 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
an adequate science of behavior should supply a satisfactory account of individual behavior which is responsible for the data of economics....B. F. Skinner (1953) The above quote addresses a point central to our discussion; namely, the relation between the behavior ofindividuals and groups. Traditionally, the behavior of individuals and groups have been the domain of different professions. Individual behavior was the domain of psychology, while group behavior, in terms of the allocation of scarce resources, was the domain of economics. However, some psychologists in the late 1970s began to observe similarities between the phenomena that they studied and economic concepts and principles (e.g., Allison
Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses
 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
, 2002
"... Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of ident ..."
Abstract

Cited by 49 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of identifiability. Nonnormality and missing data problems should also be addressed. A complete set of parameters and their standard errors is desirable, and it will often be convenient to supply the correlation matrix and discrepancies, as well as goodnessoffit indices, so that readers can exercise independent critical judgment. A survey of fairly representative studies compares recent practice with the principles of reporting recommended here.
Learning the structure of linear latent variable models
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2006
"... We describe anytime search procedures that (1) find disjoint subsets of recorded variables for which the members of each subset are dseparated by a single common unrecorded cause, if such exists; (2) return information about the causal relations among the latent factors so identified. We prove the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 42 (13 self)
 Add to MetaCart
We describe anytime search procedures that (1) find disjoint subsets of recorded variables for which the members of each subset are dseparated by a single common unrecorded cause, if such exists; (2) return information about the causal relations among the latent factors so identified. We prove the procedure is pointwise consistent assuming (a) the causal relations can be represented by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) satisfying the Markov Assumption and the Faithfulness Assumption; (b) unrecorded variables are not caused by recorded variables; and (c) dependencies are linear. We compare the procedure with standard approaches over a variety of simulated structures and sample sizes, and illustrate its practical value with brief studies of social science data sets. Finally, we
How good is good enough in path analysis of fMRI data? Neuroimage 2000
"... This paper is concerned with the problem of evaluating goodnessoffit of a path analytic model to an interregional correlation matrix derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We argue that model evaluation based on testing the null hypothesis that the correlation matrix predi ..."
Abstract

Cited by 33 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This paper is concerned with the problem of evaluating goodnessoffit of a path analytic model to an interregional correlation matrix derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We argue that model evaluation based on testing the null hypothesis that the correlation matrix predicted by the model equals the population correlation matrix is problematic because P values are conditional on asymptotic distributional results (which may not be valid for fMRI data acquired in less than 10 min), as well as arbitrary specification of residual variances and effective degrees of freedom in each regional fMRI time series. We introduce an alternative approach based on an algorithm for automatic identification of the best fitting model that can be found to account for
A MultitraitMultimethod Validation of the Implicit Association Test 27
, 2000
"... Abstract. Recent theoretical and methodological innovations suggest a distinction between implicit and explicit evaluations. We applied Campbell and Fiske’s (1959) classic multitraitmultimethod design precepts to test the construct validity of implicit attitudes as measured by the Implicit Associat ..."
Abstract

Cited by 31 (23 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract. Recent theoretical and methodological innovations suggest a distinction between implicit and explicit evaluations. We applied Campbell and Fiske’s (1959) classic multitraitmultimethod design precepts to test the construct validity of implicit attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants (N = 287) were measured on both selfreport and IAT for up to seven attitude domains. Through a sequence of latentvariable structural models, systematic method variance was distinguished from attitude variance, and a correlated twofactorsperattitude model (implicit and explicit factors) was superior to a singlefactorperattitude specification. That is, despite sometimes strong relations between implicit and explicit attitude factors, collapsing their indicators into a single attitude factor resulted in relatively inferior model fit. We conclude that these implicit and explicit measures assess related but distinct attitude constructs. This provides a basis for, but does not distinguish between, dualprocess and dualrepresentation theories that account for the distinctions between constructs.
Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks
 Psych. Rev
, 1997
"... The author developed a model that explains and predicts both longitudinal and crosssectional variation in the output of major and minor creative products. The model first yields a mathematical equation that accounts for the empirical age curves, including contrasts across creative domains in the ex ..."
Abstract

Cited by 28 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
The author developed a model that explains and predicts both longitudinal and crosssectional variation in the output of major and minor creative products. The model first yields a mathematical equation that accounts for the empirical age curves, including contrasts across creative domains in the expected career trajectories. The model is then extended to account for individual differences in career trajectories, such as the longitudinal stability of crosssectional variation and the differential placement of career landmarks (the ages at first, best, and last contribution). The theory is parsimonious in that it requires only two individualdifference parameters (initial creative potential and age at career onset) and two informationprocessing parameters (ideation and elaboration rates), plus a single principle (the equalodds rule), to derive several precise predictions that cannot be generated by any alternative theory. Albert Einstein had around 248 publications to his credit, Charles Darwin had 119, and Sigmund Freud had 330, while Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents—still the record granted to any one person by the U.S. Patent Office. Similarly, Pablo Picasso executed more than 20,000 paintings, drawings, and
Causal discovery via MML
 IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MACHINE LEARNING
, 1996
"... Automating the learning of causal models from sample data is a key step toward incorporating machine learning into decisionmaking and reasoning under uncertainty. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to the discovery of causal models, using a Minimum Message Length (MML) method. We have developed ..."
Abstract

Cited by 21 (10 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Automating the learning of causal models from sample data is a key step toward incorporating machine learning into decisionmaking and reasoning under uncertainty. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to the discovery of causal models, using a Minimum Message Length (MML) method. We have developed encoding and search methods for discovering linear causal models. The initial experimental results presented in this paper show that the MML induction approach can recover causal models from generated data which are quite accurate re ections of the original models and compare favorably with those of TETRAD II (Spirtes et al. 1994) even when it is supplied with prior temporal information and MML is not.
Mapping Cognition to the Brain Through Neural Interactions
 Memory
, 1999
"... Brain imaging methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provide a unique opportunity to study the neurobiology of human memory. Since these methods can measure most of the brain, it is possible to examine the operations of largescale neura ..."
Abstract

Cited by 20 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Brain imaging methods, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), provide a unique opportunity to study the neurobiology of human memory. Since these methods can measure most of the brain, it is possible to examine the operations of largescale neural systems and their relation to cognition. Two neuroimaging studies, one concerning working memory and the other episodic memory retrieval, serve as examples of application of two analytic methods that are optimized for the quantification of neural systems, structural equation modeling and partial least squares. Structural equation modeling was used to explore shifting prefrontal and limbic interactions from the right to the left hemisphere in a delayed matchtosample task for faces. A feature of the functional network for short delays was strong right hemisphere interactions between hippocampus, inferior prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortices. At longer delays, these same three areas were strongly linked, but in the left hemisphere, which was interpreted as reflecting change in task strategy from perceptual to elaborate encoding with increasing delay. The primary manipulation in the memory retrieval study was different levels of retrieval success. Partial least squares was used to determine whether the imagewide pattern of covariances of Brodmann areas 10 and 45/47 in right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and the left hippocampus (LGH) could be mapped on to retrieval levels. Area 10 and LGH showed an opposite pattern of functional connectivity with a large expanse of bilateral limbic cortices that was equivalent for all levels of retrieval as well as the baseline task. However, only during high retrieval area 45/47 was included in this pattern. The results suggest that activ...
A Longitudinal Study of Teacher Burnout and Perceived SelfEfficacy in Classroom Management
, 2000
"... This study examined the direction and timeframe of relationships between perceived selfefficacy in classroom management and the three dimensions of burnout among 243 secondary school teachers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived selfefficacy had a longitudinal eff ..."
Abstract

Cited by 14 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
This study examined the direction and timeframe of relationships between perceived selfefficacy in classroom management and the three dimensions of burnout among 243 secondary school teachers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived selfefficacy had a longitudinal effect on depersonalization and a synchronous effect on personal accomplishment. However, the direction was reversed for the relationship between perceived selfefficacy and emotional exhaustion; the time frame was synchronous. It was concluded that perceived selfefficacy in classroom management must be taken into consideration when devising interventions both to prevent and to treat burnout among secondary school teachers.
Heritability of Attention Problems in Children: Longitudinal Results From a Study of Twins, Age 3 to 12
, 2004
"... this paper we present data of large samples of twin families, with an equal number of girls and boys. The wellknown gender difference with boys displaying more OA and AP was observed at each age. Even at the age of 3, boys display more OA problems than girls. Clinical studies have indicated that se ..."
Abstract

Cited by 11 (7 self)
 Add to MetaCart
this paper we present data of large samples of twin families, with an equal number of girls and boys. The wellknown gender difference with boys displaying more OA and AP was observed at each age. Even at the age of 3, boys display more OA problems than girls. Clinical studies have indicated that severe problem behavior can be identified in very young children (see for review, Campbell, 1995; Keenan & Wakschlag, 2000; Shaw, Owens, Giovannelli, & Winslow, 2001) and that the onset of ADHD is during the preschool period (Barkley, Fisher, Edelbrock, & Smallish, 1990; Table 6 Top part includes percentages of total variances (diagonal) and covariances (offdiagonal) explained by additive genetic, genetic dominance, and unique environmental components based on best fitting models. Percentages for boys and girls are reported below and above diagonal, respectively. Lower part includes correlations calculated for additive genetic, genetic dominance, and unique environmental sources of variance between different ages. Correlations for boys and girls are reported below and above diagonal, respectively Relative proportions of variance and covariance BoysnGirls A% D% E% OA 3 AP 7 AP 10 AP 12 OA 3 AP 7 AP 10 AP 12 OA 3 AP 7 AP 10 AP 12 OA 3 50n41 73 79 75 22n33 17 13 14 28n26 10 8 11 AP 7 59 33n57 50 53 31 39n16 31 28 10 28n27 19 19 AP 10 86 31 41n48 47 6 51 31n25 32 8 18 28n27 21 AP 12 71 24 31 40n54 16 55 45 30n18 13 21 24 30n28 Correlations between different ages BoysnGirls ADE OA 3 AP 7 AP 10 AP 12 OA 3 AP 7 AP 10 AP 12 OA 3 AP 7 AP 10 AP 12 OA 3 1.00 .60 .66 .57 1.00 .30 .16 .20 1.00 .15 .12 .14 AP 7 .57 1.00 .62 .57 .41 1.00 .99 1.00 .15 1.00 .46 .41 AP 10 .68 .56 1.00 .61 .08 .94 1.00 1.00 .11 .42 1.00 .50 AP 12 .49 .42 .53 1.00 .20 .98 .99 1.00 .14 .45 .58 1.00 ...