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Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure
, 1976
"... This paper integrates elements from the theory of agency, the theory of property rights and the theory of finance to develop a theory of the ownership structure of the firm. We define the concept of agency costs, show its relationship to the ‘separation and control’ issue, investigate the nature of ..."
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Cited by 3043 (12 self)
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This paper integrates elements from the theory of agency, the theory of property rights and the theory of finance to develop a theory of the ownership structure of the firm. We define the concept of agency costs, show its relationship to the ‘separation and control’ issue, investigate the nature of the agency costs generated by the existence of debt and outside equity, demonstrate who bears costs and why, and investigate the Pareto optimality of their existence. We also provide a new definition of the firm, and show how our analysis of the factors influencing the creation and issuance of debt and equity claims is a special case of the supply side of the completeness of markets problem.
On the pricing of corporate debt: The risk structure of interest rates
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 1974
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A closedform solution for options with stochastic volatility with applications to bond and currency options
 Review of Financial Studies
, 1993
"... I use a new technique to derive a closedform solution for the price of a European call option on an asset with stochastic volatility. The model allows arbitrary correlation between volatility and spotasset returns. I introduce stochastic interest rates and show how to apply the model to bond option ..."
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Cited by 1512 (6 self)
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I use a new technique to derive a closedform solution for the price of a European call option on an asset with stochastic volatility. The model allows arbitrary correlation between volatility and spotasset returns. I introduce stochastic interest rates and show how to apply the model to bond options and foreign currency options. Simulations show that correlation between volatility and the spot asset’s price is important for explaining return skewness and strikeprice biases in the BlackScholes (1973) model. The solution technique is based on characteristic functions and can be applied to other problems. Many plaudits have been aptly used to describe Black and Scholes ’ (1973) contribution to option pricing theory. Despite subsequent development of option theory, the original BlackScholes formula for a European call option remains the most successful and widely used application. This formula is particularly useful because it relates the distribution of spot returns I thank Hans Knoch for computational assistance. I am grateful for the suggestions of Hyeng Keun (the referee) and for comments by participants
Performance pay and topmanagement incentives’’,
 Journal of Political Economy,
, 1990
"... Abstract Our estimates of the payperformance relation (including pay, options, stockholdings, and dismissal) for chief executive officers indicate CEO wealth changes $3.25 for every $1,000 change in shareholder wealth. Although the incentives generated by stock ownership are large relative to pay ..."
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Cited by 1137 (19 self)
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Abstract Our estimates of the payperformance relation (including pay, options, stockholdings, and dismissal) for chief executive officers indicate CEO wealth changes $3.25 for every $1,000 change in shareholder wealth. Although the incentives generated by stock ownership are large relative to pay and dismissal incentives, most CEOs hold trivial fractions of their firm's stock and ownership levels have declined over the past 50 years. We hypothesize that public and private political forces impose constraints that reduce the payperformance sensitivity. Declines in both the payperformance relation and the level of CEO pay since the 1930s are consistent with this hypothesis. * We have benefited from the assistance of
An equilibrium characterization of the term structure.
 J. Financial Econometrics
, 1977
"... The paper derives a general form of the term structure of interest rates. The following assumptions are made: (A.l) The instantaneous (spot) interest rate follows a diffusion process; (A.2) the price of a discount bond depends only on the spot rate over its term; and (A.3) the market is efficient. ..."
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Cited by 1041 (0 self)
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The paper derives a general form of the term structure of interest rates. The following assumptions are made: (A.l) The instantaneous (spot) interest rate follows a diffusion process; (A.2) the price of a discount bond depends only on the spot rate over its term; and (A.3) the market is efficient. Under these assumptions, it is shown by means of an arbitrage argument that the expected rate of return on any bond in excess of the spot rate is proportional to its standard deviation. This property is then used to derive a partial differential equation for bond prices. The solution to that equation is given in the form of a stochastic integral representation. An interpretation of the bond pricing formula is provided. The model is illustrated on a specific case.
Option Pricing: A Simplified Approach
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1979
"... This paper presents a simple discretetime model for valumg optlons. The fundamental econonuc principles of option pricing by arbitrage methods are particularly clear In this setting. Its development requires only elementary mathematics, yet it contains as a special limiting case the celebrated Blac ..."
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Cited by 1016 (10 self)
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This paper presents a simple discretetime model for valumg optlons. The fundamental econonuc principles of option pricing by arbitrage methods are particularly clear In this setting. Its development requires only elementary mathematics, yet it contains as a special limiting case the celebrated Black&holes model, which has previously been derived only by much more difficult methods. The basic model readily lends itself to generalization in many ways. Moreover, by its very constructlon, it gives rise to a simple and efficient numerical procedure for valumg optlons for which premature exercise may be optimal. 1.
The pricing of options on assets with stochastic volatilities
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 1987
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Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1976
"... The validity of the classic BlackScholes option pricing formula dcpcnds on the capability of investors to follow a dynamic portfolio strategy in the stock that replicates the payoff structure to the option. The critical assumption required for such a strategy to be feasible, is that the underlying ..."
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Cited by 1001 (3 self)
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The validity of the classic BlackScholes option pricing formula dcpcnds on the capability of investors to follow a dynamic portfolio strategy in the stock that replicates the payoff structure to the option. The critical assumption required for such a strategy to be feasible, is that the underlying stock return dynamics can be described by a stochastic process with a continuous sample path. In this paper, an option pricing formula is derived for the moregeneral cast when the underlying stock returns are gcncrated by a mixture of both continuous and jump processes. The derived formula has most of the attractive features of the original Black&holes formula in that it does not dcpcnd on investor prcfcrenccs or knowledge of the expcctsd return on the underlying stock. Morcovcr, the same analysis applied to the options can bc extcndcd to the pricingofcorporatc liabilities. 1. Intruduction In their classic paper on the theory of option pricing, Black and Scholcs (1973) prcscnt a mode of an:llysis that has rcvolutionizcd the theory of corporate liability pricing. In part, their approach was a breakthrough because it leads to pricing formulas using. for the most part, only obscrvablc variables. In particular,
Empirical performance of alternative option pricing models
 Journal of Finance
, 1997
"... reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for noncommercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies. ..."
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Cited by 705 (21 self)
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reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for noncommercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies.
A yieldfactor model of interest rates
 Math. Finance
, 1996
"... This paper presents a consistent and arbitragefree multifactor model of the term structure of interest rates in which yields at selected fixed maturities follow a parametric multivariate Markov diffusion process with “stochastic volatility. ” The yield of any zerocoupon bond is taken to be a matur ..."
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Cited by 665 (23 self)
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This paper presents a consistent and arbitragefree multifactor model of the term structure of interest rates in which yields at selected fixed maturities follow a parametric multivariate Markov diffusion process with “stochastic volatility. ” The yield of any zerocoupon bond is taken to be a maturitydependent affine combination of the selected “basis ” set of yields. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the stochastic model for this affine representation. We include numerical techniques for solving the model, as wcll as numerical techniques for calculating the prices of termstructure derivative prices. The case of jump diffusions i \ also considered. I.