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Voronoi diagrams  a survey of a fundamental geometric data structure
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1991
"... This paper presents a survey of the Voronoi diagram, one of the most fundamental data structures in computational geometry. It demonstrates the importance and usefulness of the Voronoi diagram in a wide variety of fields inside and outside computer science and surveys the history of its development. ..."
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Cited by 560 (5 self)
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This paper presents a survey of the Voronoi diagram, one of the most fundamental data structures in computational geometry. It demonstrates the importance and usefulness of the Voronoi diagram in a wide variety of fields inside and outside computer science and surveys the history of its development. The paper puts particular emphasis on the unified exposition of its mathematical and algorithmic properties. Finally, the paper provides the first comprehensive bibliography on Voronoi diagrams and related structures.
Voronoi Diagrams and Delaunay Triangulations
 Computing in Euclidean Geometry
, 1992
"... The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental structure in computationalgeometry and arises naturally in many different fields. This chapter surveys properties of the Voronoi diagram and its geometric dual, the Delaunay triangulation. The emphasis is on practical algorithms for the construction of Voronoi ..."
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Cited by 198 (3 self)
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The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental structure in computationalgeometry and arises naturally in many different fields. This chapter surveys properties of the Voronoi diagram and its geometric dual, the Delaunay triangulation. The emphasis is on practical algorithms for the construction of Voronoi diagrams. 1 Introduction Let S be a set of n points in ddimensional euclidean space E d . The points of S are called sites. The Voronoi diagram of S splits E d into regions with one region for each site, so that the points in the region for site s2S are closer to s than to any other site in S. The Delaunay triangulation of S is the unique triangulation of S so that there are no elements of S inside the circumsphere of any triangle. Here `triangulation' is extended from the planar usage to arbitrary dimension: a triangulation decomposes the convex hull of S into simplices using elements of S as vertices. The existence and uniqueness of the Delaunay triangulation are perhaps not obvio...
Arrangements and Their Applications
 Handbook of Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... The arrangement of a finite collection of geometric objects is the decomposition of the space into connected cells induced by them. We survey combinatorial and algorithmic properties of arrangements of arcs in the plane and of surface patches in higher dimensions. We present many applications of arr ..."
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Cited by 78 (22 self)
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The arrangement of a finite collection of geometric objects is the decomposition of the space into connected cells induced by them. We survey combinatorial and algorithmic properties of arrangements of arcs in the plane and of surface patches in higher dimensions. We present many applications of arrangements to problems in motion planning, visualization, range searching, molecular modeling, and geometric optimization. Some results involving planar arrangements of arcs have been presented in a companion chapter in this book, and are extended in this chapter to higher dimensions. Work by P.A. was supported by Army Research Office MURI grant DAAH049610013, by a Sloan fellowship, by an NYI award, and by a grant from the U.S.Israeli Binational Science Foundation. Work by M.S. was supported by NSF Grants CCR9122103 and CCR9311127, by a MaxPlanck Research Award, and by grants from the U.S.Israeli Binational Science Foundation, the Israel Science Fund administered by the Israeli Ac...
Voronoi Diagrams in Higher Dimensions under Certain Polyhedral Distance Functions
, 1995
"... The paper bounds the combinatorial complexity of the Voronoi diagram of a set of points under certain polyhedral distance functions. Specifically, if S is a set of n points in general position in R^d, the maximum complexity of its Voronoi diagram under the L1 metric, and also under a simplicial dist ..."
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Cited by 57 (25 self)
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The paper bounds the combinatorial complexity of the Voronoi diagram of a set of points under certain polyhedral distance functions. Specifically, if S is a set of n points in general position in R^d, the maximum complexity of its Voronoi diagram under the L1 metric, and also under a simplicial distance function, are both shown to be \Theta(n dd=2e ). The upper bound for the case of the L1 metric follows from a new upper bound, also proved in this paper, on the maximum complexity of the union of n axisparallel hypercubes in R^d. This complexity is \Theta(n dd=2e ), for d 1, and it improves to \Theta(n bd=2c ), for d 2, if all the hypercubes have the same size. Under the L 1 metric, the maximum complexity of the Voronoi diagram of a set of n points in general position in R³ is shown to be \Theta(n 2 ). We also show that the general position assumption is essential, and give examples where the complexity of the diagram increases significantly when the points are in d...
A Comparison of Sequential Delaunay Triangulation Algorithms
, 1996
"... This paper presents an experimental comparison of a number of different algorithms for computing the Deluanay triangulation. The algorithms examined are: Dwyer’s divide and conquer algorithm, Fortune’s sweepline algorithm, several versions of the incremental algorithm (including one by Ohya, Iri, an ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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This paper presents an experimental comparison of a number of different algorithms for computing the Deluanay triangulation. The algorithms examined are: Dwyer’s divide and conquer algorithm, Fortune’s sweepline algorithm, several versions of the incremental algorithm (including one by Ohya, Iri, and Murota, a new bucketingbased algorithm described in this paper, and Devillers’s version of a Delaunaytree based algorithm that appears in LEDA), an algorithm that incrementally adds a correct Delaunay triangle adjacent to a current triangle in a manner similar to gift wrapping algorithms for convex hulls, and Barber’s convex hull based algorithm. Most of the algorithms examined are designed for good performance on uniformly distributed sites. However, we also test implementations of these algorithms on a number of nonuniform distibutions. The experiments go beyond measuring total running time, which tends to be machinedependent. We also analyze the major highlevel primitives that algorithms use and do an experimental analysis of how often implementations of these algorithms perform each operation.
Vertical decomposition of shallow levels in 3dimensional arrangements and its applications
 SIAM J. Comput
"... Let F be a collection of n bivariate algebraic functions of constant maximum degree. We show that the combinatorial complexity of the vertical decomposition of the ≤klevel of the arrangement A(F) is O(k 3+ε ψ(n/k)), for any ε> 0, where ψ(r) is the maximum complexity of the lower envelope of a subse ..."
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Cited by 54 (13 self)
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Let F be a collection of n bivariate algebraic functions of constant maximum degree. We show that the combinatorial complexity of the vertical decomposition of the ≤klevel of the arrangement A(F) is O(k 3+ε ψ(n/k)), for any ε> 0, where ψ(r) is the maximum complexity of the lower envelope of a subset of at most r functions of F. This bound is nearly optimal in the worst case, and implies the existence of shallow cuttings, in the sense of [52], of small size in arrangements of bivariate algebraic functions. We also present numerous applications of these results, including: (i) data structures for several generalized threedimensional rangesearching problems; (ii) dynamic data structures for planar nearest and farthestneighbor searching under various fairly general distance functions; (iii) an improved (nearquadratic) algorithm for minimumweight bipartite Euclidean matching in the plane; and (iv) efficient algorithms for certain geometric optimization problems in static and dynamic settings.
Computing envelopes in four dimensions with applications
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1997
"... Abstract. Let F be a collection of ndvariate, possibly partially defined, functions, all algebraic of some constant maximum degree. We present a randomized algorithm that computes the vertices, edges, and 2faces of the lower envelope (i.e., pointwise minimum) of F in expected time O(n d+ε) for any ..."
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Cited by 42 (19 self)
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Abstract. Let F be a collection of ndvariate, possibly partially defined, functions, all algebraic of some constant maximum degree. We present a randomized algorithm that computes the vertices, edges, and 2faces of the lower envelope (i.e., pointwise minimum) of F in expected time O(n d+ε) for any ε>0. For d = 3, by combining this algorithm with the pointlocation technique of Preparata and Tamassia, we can compute, in randomized expected time O(n 3+ε), for any ε>0, a data structure of size O(n 3+ε) that, for any query point q, can determine in O(log 2 n) time the function(s) of F that attain the lower envelope at q. As a consequence, we obtain improved algorithmic solutions to several problems in computational geometry, including (a) computing the width of a point set in 3space, (b) computing the “biggest stick ” in a simple polygon in the plane, and (c) computing the smallestwidth annulus covering a planar point set. The solutions to these problems run in randomized expected time O(n 17/11+ε), for any ε>0, improving previous solutions that run in time O(n 8/5+ε). We also present data structures for (i) performing nearestneighbor and related queries for fairly general collections of objects in 3space and for collections of moving objects in the plane and (ii) performing rayshooting and related queries among n spheres or more general objects in 3space. Both of these data structures require O(n 3+ε) storage and preprocessing time, for any ε>0, and support polylogarithmictime queries. These structures improve previous solutions to these problems.
Straight Skeletons for General Polygonal Figures in the Plane
, 1996
"... : A novel type of skeleton for general polygonal figures, the straight skeleton S(G) of a planar straight line graph G, is introduced and discussed. Exact bounds on the size of S(G) are derived. The straight line structure of S(G) and its lower combinatorial complexity may make S(G) preferable to th ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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: A novel type of skeleton for general polygonal figures, the straight skeleton S(G) of a planar straight line graph G, is introduced and discussed. Exact bounds on the size of S(G) are derived. The straight line structure of S(G) and its lower combinatorial complexity may make S(G) preferable to the widely used Voronoi diagram (or medial axis) of G in several applications. We explain why S(G) has no Voronoi diagram based interpretation and why standard construction techniques fail to work. A simple O(n) space algorithm for constructing S(G) is proposed. The worstcase running time is O(n 3 log n), but the algorithm can be expected to be practically efficient, and it is easy to implement. We also show that the concept of S(G) is flexible enough to allow an individual weighting of the edges and vertices of G, without changes in the maximal size of S(G), or in the method of construction. Apart from offering an alternative to Voronoitype skeletons, these generalizations of S(G) have ap...
Primal Dividing and Dual Pruning: OutputSensitive Construction of 4d Polytopes and 3d Voronoi Diagrams
, 1997
"... In this paper, we give an algorithm for outputsensitive construction of an fface convex hull of a set of n points in general position in E 4 . Our algorithm runs in O((n + f)log 2 f) time and uses O(n + f) space. This is the first algorithm within a polylogarithmic factor of optimal O(n log f ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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In this paper, we give an algorithm for outputsensitive construction of an fface convex hull of a set of n points in general position in E 4 . Our algorithm runs in O((n + f)log 2 f) time and uses O(n + f) space. This is the first algorithm within a polylogarithmic factor of optimal O(n log f + f) time over the whole range of f . By a standard lifting map, we obtain outputsensitive algorithms for the Voronoi diagram or Delaunay triangulation in E 3 and for the portion of a Voronoi diagram that is clipped to a convex polytope. Our approach simplifies the "ultimate convex hull algorithm" of Kirkpatrick and Seidel in E 2 and also leads to improved outputsensitive results on constructing convex hulls in E d for any even constant d ? 4. 1 Introduction Geometric structures induced by n points in Euclidean ddimensional space, such as the convex hull, Voronoi diagram, or Delaunay triangulation, can be of larger size than the point set that defines them. In many practical situat...