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Observational logic
 IN ALGEBRAIC METHODOLOGY AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY (AMAST'98
, 1999
"... We present an institution of observational logic suited for statebased systems specifications. The institution is based on the notion of an observational signature (which incorporates the declaration of a distinguished set of observers) and on observational algebras whose operations are required ..."
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Cited by 52 (10 self)
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We present an institution of observational logic suited for statebased systems specifications. The institution is based on the notion of an observational signature (which incorporates the declaration of a distinguished set of observers) and on observational algebras whose operations are required to be compatible with the indistinguishability relation determined by the given observers. In particular, we introduce a homomorphism concept for observational algebras which adequately expresses observational relationships between algebras. Then we consider a flexible notion of observational signature morphism which guarantees the satisfaction condition of institutions w.r.t. observational satisfaction of arbitrary firstorder sentences. From the proof theoretical point of view we construct a sound and complete proof system for the observational consequence relation. Then we consider structured observational specifications and we provide a sound and complete proof system for such specifications by using a general, institutionindependent result of [6].
Composing Hidden Information Modules over Inclusive Institutions
 In From ObjectOrientation to Formal Methods: Essays in Honor of JohanOle Dahl
, 2003
"... This paper studies the composition of modules that can hide information, over a very general class of logical systems called inclusive institutions. Two semantics are given for composition of such modules using five familiar operations, and a property called conservativity is shown necessary and suf ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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This paper studies the composition of modules that can hide information, over a very general class of logical systems called inclusive institutions. Two semantics are given for composition of such modules using five familiar operations, and a property called conservativity is shown necessary and sufficient for these semantics to agree. The first semantics extracts the visible properties of the result of composing the visible and hidden parts of modules, while the second uses only the visible properties of the components; the semantics agree when the visible consequences of hidden information are enough to determine the result of the composition. A number of "laws of software composition" are proved relating the composition operations. Inclusive institutions simplify many proofs.
Information Visualization and Semiotic Morphisms
 Visual Representations and Interpretations. Elsevier, 2003. Proceedings of a workshop held in
, 2000
"... An approach to information visualization based on algebraic semiotics is introduced, and illustrated with examples. Semiotics is the general theory of signs, and algebraic semiotics is a new approach combining algebraic abstract data type theory with a grounding in social reality. The most import ..."
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Cited by 16 (10 self)
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An approach to information visualization based on algebraic semiotics is introduced, and illustrated with examples. Semiotics is the general theory of signs, and algebraic semiotics is a new approach combining algebraic abstract data type theory with a grounding in social reality. The most important new ideas are to use semiotic spaces for systems of related signs, semiotic morphisms for representations of signs, and preservation orderings for the quality of representations.
Tools for Distributed Cooperative Design and Validation
 In Proceedings, CafeOBJ Symposium. Japan Advanced Institute for Science and Technology
, 1998
"... : We describe some tools to support distributed cooperative design and validation of software systems. Workers at different sites can collaborate on tasks including specification, refinement, validation, verification, and documentation. A distributed database supports alternative and incomplete acti ..."
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Cited by 13 (8 self)
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: We describe some tools to support distributed cooperative design and validation of software systems. Workers at different sites can collaborate on tasks including specification, refinement, validation, verification, and documentation. A distributed database supports alternative and incomplete activities, and can be read using any web browser; remote proof execution, animation, and informal explanation are supported, and results are broadcast by a protocol that prevents inconsistencies. The Kumo tool assists with validations and generates documentation websites. A range of formality is supported, from full mechanical proofs to informal "back of envelope" arguments, using a fuzzy logic for confidence levels. Some conclusions drawn from experiments are reported. 1 Introduction Software engineering is very difficult. Typical projects have multiple workers, often at multiple sites with different schedules; then it is difficult to share information and coordinate tasks; documentation may...
Institutionalising OntologyBased Semantic Integration
, 2007
"... We address what is still a scarcity of general mathematical foundations for ontologybased semantic integration underlying current knowledge engineering methodologies in decentralised and distributed environments. After recalling the firstorder ontologybased approach to semantic integration and ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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We address what is still a scarcity of general mathematical foundations for ontologybased semantic integration underlying current knowledge engineering methodologies in decentralised and distributed environments. After recalling the firstorder ontologybased approach to semantic integration and a formalisation of ontological commitment, we propose a general theory that uses a syntax and interpretationindependent formulation of language, ontology, and ontological commitment in terms of institutions. We claim that our formalisation generalises the intuitive notion of ontologybased semantic integration while retaining its basic insight, and we apply it for eliciting and hence comparing various increasingly complex notions of semantic integration and ontological commitment based on differing understandings of semantics.
Algebraic Semiotics, ProofWebs, and Distributed Cooperative Proving
 Proceedings, User Interfaces for Theorem Provers
, 1997
"... : We describe a new approach to interface design called algebraic semiotics, combining semiotics with algebraic specification to give a rigorous theory of representation quality, and we apply it to the tatami distributed cooperative proving project. This project uses standard html, Java, etc. for r ..."
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Cited by 11 (9 self)
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: We describe a new approach to interface design called algebraic semiotics, combining semiotics with algebraic specification to give a rigorous theory of representation quality, and we apply it to the tatami distributed cooperative proving project. This project uses standard html, Java, etc. for remote proof browsing, servers for remote proof execution, a protocol to maintain truth of distributed cooperative proofs, and a tool combining proof assistance with website editing. Its proof paradigm reduces theorems to problems solvable by proof servers. ProofWebs integrate browsing, execution, animation, and informal explanation with formal proofs, and their design has been driven by semiotic ideas. 1 Introduction The landscape of theorem proving can be seen as two main peaks with a great plane between. These peaks represent fully automatic theorem provers and proof checking theorem provers; the plane represents the difficulty of combining their virtues. The peaks are steep and dark bec...
Foundations of Heterogeneous Specification
"... We provide a semantic basis for heterogeneous specifications that not only involve different logics, but also different kinds of translations between these. We show that Grothendieck institutions based on spans of (co)morphisms can serve as a unifying framework providing a simple but powerful semant ..."
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Cited by 10 (3 self)
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We provide a semantic basis for heterogeneous specifications that not only involve different logics, but also different kinds of translations between these. We show that Grothendieck institutions based on spans of (co)morphisms can serve as a unifying framework providing a simple but powerful semantics for heterogeneous specification.
General logics
 In Logic Colloquium 87
, 1989
"... theory, categorical logic. model theory that emerged in computer science studies of software specification and semantics. To handle proof theory, our institutions use an extension of traditional categorical logic with sets of sentences as objects instead of single sentences, and with morphisms repre ..."
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Cited by 9 (3 self)
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theory, categorical logic. model theory that emerged in computer science studies of software specification and semantics. To handle proof theory, our institutions use an extension of traditional categorical logic with sets of sentences as objects instead of single sentences, and with morphisms representing proofs as usual. A natural equivalence relation on institutions is defined such that its equivalence classes are logics. Several invariants are defined for this equivalence, including a Lindenbaum
Heterogeneous colimits
 In Workshop on Modeling, Validation and Heterogeneity
, 2008
"... Colimits are a useful tool for the combination of specifications and logical theories. We generalize the notion of colimit to a heterogeneous multilogic setting. For practically realistic cases, the notion has to be weakened. We describe an algorithm that approximates the weaker notion but obtains ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Colimits are a useful tool for the combination of specifications and logical theories. We generalize the notion of colimit to a heterogeneous multilogic setting. For practically realistic cases, the notion has to be weakened. We describe an algorithm that approximates the weaker notion but obtains a colimit whenever possible. This algorithm is being implemented as part of the Heterogeneous Tool Set HETS.
Distributed Cooperative Formal Methods Tools
 In Proc. Automated Software Engineering. IEEE
, 1997
"... : This paper describes some tools to support formal methods, and conversely some formal methods for developing such tools. We focus on distributed cooperative proving over the web. Our tools include a proof editor /assistant, servers for remote proof execution, a distributed truth protocol, an edito ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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: This paper describes some tools to support formal methods, and conversely some formal methods for developing such tools. We focus on distributed cooperative proving over the web. Our tools include a proof editor /assistant, servers for remote proof execution, a distributed truth protocol, an editor generator, and a new method for interface design called algebraic semiotics, which combines semiotics with algebraic specification. Some examples are given. 1. Introduction Formal methods have been used to prove correctness of software, but this task is known to be difficult, for various reasons [5, 13]. New technologies  the internet, the web, multimedia, applets, etc.  offer exciting opportunities to reduce this difficulty that have not yet been much explored. We seek to build industrial strength formal method tools for distributed work by ordinary software engineers over the web, especially for concurrent systems. This involves several challenging subtasks, including a practical ...