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Sampling—50 years after Shannon
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon’s formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling, where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the math ..."
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Cited by 340 (27 self)
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This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon’s formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling, where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the mathematical connections that were made with wavelet theory. To introduce the reader to the modern, Hilbertspace formulation, we reinterpret Shannon’s sampling procedure as an orthogonal projection onto the subspace of bandlimited functions. We then extend the standard sampling paradigm for a representation of functions in the more general class of “shiftinvariant” functions spaces, including splines and wavelets. Practically, this allows for simpler—and possibly more realistic—interpolation models, which can be used in conjunction with a much wider class of (antialiasing) prefilters that are not necessarily ideal lowpass. We summarize and discuss the results available for the determination of the approximation error and of the sampling rate when the input of the system is essentially arbitrary; e.g., nonbandlimited. We also review variations of sampling that can be understood from the same unifying perspective. These include wavelets, multiwavelets, Papoulis generalized sampling, finite elements, and frames. Irregular sampling and radial basis functions are briefly mentioned. Keywords—Bandlimited functions, Hilbert spaces, interpolation, least squares approximation, projection operators, sampling,
Sparse Geometric Image Representations with Bandelets
, 2004
"... This paper introduces a new class of bases, called bandelet bases, which decompose the image along multiscale vectors that are elongated in the direction of a geometric flow. This geometric flow indicates directions in which the image grey levels have regular variations. The image decomposition in ..."
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Cited by 196 (4 self)
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This paper introduces a new class of bases, called bandelet bases, which decompose the image along multiscale vectors that are elongated in the direction of a geometric flow. This geometric flow indicates directions in which the image grey levels have regular variations. The image decomposition in a bandelet basis is implemented with a fast subband filtering algorithm. Bandelet bases lead to optimal approximation rates for geometrically regular images. For image compression and noise removal applications, the geometric flow is optimized with fast algorithms, so that the resulting bandelet basis produces a minimum distortion. Comparisons are made with wavelet image compression and noise removal algorithms.
Wavelet Filter Evaluation for Image Compression
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 1995
"... AbstractChoke of fflter bank En wavelet ampredon is a critical Loaw that afXecta image qunlrtJl as wdl as system design. Although r e g " i t y fs sometimes wed in Bltv evrhutloa, its s u c a w at pndietlng compression perfmmme Is only parlid. A more reliable evaluation ean be Obtsiaed by d d ..."
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Cited by 176 (4 self)
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AbstractChoke of fflter bank En wavelet ampredon is a critical Loaw that afXecta image qunlrtJl as wdl as system design. Although r e g " i t y fs sometimes wed in Bltv evrhutloa, its s u c a w at pndietlng compression perfmmme Is only parlid. A more reliable evaluation ean be Obtsiaed by d d n g JUI Llevel synthcds/malysls system as a singbinput,
Visibility of Wavelet Quantization Noise
, 1996
"... The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coe ..."
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Cited by 145 (1 self)
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The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2 l , where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and l is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.
Time Invariant Orthonormal Wavelet Representations
"... A simple construction of an orthonormal basis starting with a so called mother wavelet, together with an efficient implementation gained the wavelet decomposition easy acceptance and generated a great research interest in its applications. An orthonormal basis may not, however, always be a suitable ..."
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Cited by 70 (9 self)
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A simple construction of an orthonormal basis starting with a so called mother wavelet, together with an efficient implementation gained the wavelet decomposition easy acceptance and generated a great research interest in its applications. An orthonormal basis may not, however, always be a suitable representation of a signal, particularly when time (or space) invariance is a required property. The conventional way around this problem is to use a redundant decomposition. In this paper, we address the time invariance problem for orthonormal wavelet transforms and propose an extension to wavelet packet decompositions. We show that it is possible to achieve time invariance and preserve the orthonormality. We subsequently propose an efficient approach to obtain such a decomposition. We demonstrate the importance of our method by considering some application examples in signal reconstruction and time delay estimation.
Embedded Foveation Image Coding
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2001
"... The human visual system (HVS) is highly spacevariant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible t ..."
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Cited by 63 (16 self)
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The human visual system (HVS) is highly spacevariant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable highfrequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained recently by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this
Wavelet Families Of Increasing Order In Arbitrary Dimensions
, 1997
"... . We build compactly supported biorthogonal wavelets and perfect reconstruction filter banks for any lattice in any dimension with any number of primal and dual vanishing moments. The resulting scaling functions are interpolating. Our construction relies on the lifting scheme and inherits all of its ..."
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Cited by 58 (0 self)
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. We build compactly supported biorthogonal wavelets and perfect reconstruction filter banks for any lattice in any dimension with any number of primal and dual vanishing moments. The resulting scaling functions are interpolating. Our construction relies on the lifting scheme and inherits all of its advantages: fast transform, inplace calculation, and integerto integer transforms. We show that two lifting steps suffice: predict and update. The predict step can be built using multivariate polynomial interpolation, while update is a multiple of the adjoint of predict. Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Image Processing Over the last decade several constructions of compactly supported wavelets have originated both from signal processing and mathematical analysis. In signal processing, critically sampled wavelet transforms are known as filter banks or subband transforms [32, 43, 54, 56]. In mathematical analysis, wavelets are defined as translates and dilates of one fixed function and ar...
Wavelet theory demystified
 IEEE Trans. Signal Process
, 2003
"... Abstract—In this paper, we revisit wavelet theory starting from the representation of a scaling function as the convolution of a Bspline (the regular part of it) and a distribution (the irregular or residual part). This formulation leads to some new insights on wavelets and makes it possible to red ..."
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Cited by 57 (26 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we revisit wavelet theory starting from the representation of a scaling function as the convolution of a Bspline (the regular part of it) and a distribution (the irregular or residual part). This formulation leads to some new insights on wavelets and makes it possible to rederive the main results of the classical theory—including some new extensions for fractional orders—in a selfcontained, accessible fashion. In particular, we prove that the Bspline component is entirely responsible for five key wavelet properties: order of approximation, reproduction of polynomials, vanishing moments, multiscale differentiation property, and smoothness (regularity) of the basis functions. We also investigate the interaction of wavelets with differential operators giving explicit time domain formulas for the fractional derivatives of the basis functions. This allows us to specify a corresponding dual wavelet basis and helps us understand why the wavelet transform provides a stable characterization of the derivatives of a signal. Additional results include a new peeling theory of smoothness, leading to the extended notion of wavelet differentiability in thesense and a sharper theorem stating that smoothness implies order. Index Terms—Approximation order, Besov spaces, Hölder smoothness, multiscale differentiation, splines, vanishing moments, wavelets. I.
Pairs of Dual Wavelet Frames From Any Two Refinable Functions
, 2000
"... Starting from any two compactly supported refinable functions in L 2 (R) with dilation factor d, we show that it is always possible to construct 2d wavelet functions with compact support such that they generate a pair of dual dwavelet frames in L 2 (R). Moreover, the number of vanishing moments of ..."
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Cited by 43 (21 self)
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Starting from any two compactly supported refinable functions in L 2 (R) with dilation factor d, we show that it is always possible to construct 2d wavelet functions with compact support such that they generate a pair of dual dwavelet frames in L 2 (R). Moreover, the number of vanishing moments of each of these wavelet frames is equal to the approximation order of the dual MRA; this is the highest possible. In particular, when we consider symmetric refinable functions, the constructed dual wavelets are also symmetric or antisymmetric. As a consequence, for any compactly supported refinable function in L 2 (R), it is possible to construct explicitly and easily wavelets that are finite linear combinations of translates (d k), and that generate a wavelet frame with arbitrarily preassigned number of vanishing moments. We illustrate the general theory by examples of such pairs of dual wavelet frames derived from Bspline functions.