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**11 - 12**of**12**### Fault-Tolerance and Complexity

, 1993

"... Robust computation--a radical approach to fault-tolerant database access--was explicitly defined one decade ago, and in the following year this notion was presented at ICALP in Antwerp. A decade's study of robust computation by many researchers has determined which problems can be fault-tolerantl ..."

Abstract
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Robust computation--a radical approach to fault-tolerant database access--was explicitly defined one decade ago, and in the following year this notion was presented at ICALP in Antwerp. A decade's study of robust computation by many researchers has determined which problems can be fault-tolerantly solved via access to databases of many strengths. This paper surveys these results and mentions some interesting unresolved issues.

### Search versus Decision for Election Manipulation Problems ∗

"... Most theoretical definitions about the complexity of manipulating elections focus on the decision problem of recognizing which instances can be successfully manipulated, rather than the search problem of finding the successful manipulative actions. Since the latter is a far more natural goal for man ..."

Abstract
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Most theoretical definitions about the complexity of manipulating elections focus on the decision problem of recognizing which instances can be successfully manipulated, rather than the search problem of finding the successful manipulative actions. Since the latter is a far more natural goal for manipulators, that definitional focus may be misguided if these two complexities can differ. Our main result is that they probably do differ: If integer factoring is hard, then for election manipulation, election bribery, and some types of election control, there are election systems for which recognizing which instances can be successfully manipulated is in polynomial time but producing the successful manipulations cannot be done in polynomial time.