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256
Learning in graphical models
 STATISTICAL SCIENCE
, 2004
"... Statistical applications in fields such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, speech processing, image processing and communications often involve largescale models in which thousands or millions of random variables are linked in complex ways. Graphical models provide a general methodology for ..."
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Cited by 802 (10 self)
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Statistical applications in fields such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, speech processing, image processing and communications often involve largescale models in which thousands or millions of random variables are linked in complex ways. Graphical models provide a general methodology for approaching these problems, and indeed many of the models developed by researchers in these applied fields are instances of the general graphical model formalism. We review some of the basic ideas underlying graphical models, including the algorithmic ideas that allow graphical models to be deployed in largescale data analysis problems. We also present examples of graphical models in bioinformatics, errorcontrol coding and language processing.
Inducing Features of Random Fields
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 1997
"... We present a technique for constructing random fields from a set of training samples. The learning paradigm builds increasingly complex fields by allowing potential functions, or features, that are supported by increasingly large subgraphs. Each feature has a weight that is trained by minimizing the ..."
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Cited by 666 (14 self)
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We present a technique for constructing random fields from a set of training samples. The learning paradigm builds increasingly complex fields by allowing potential functions, or features, that are supported by increasingly large subgraphs. Each feature has a weight that is trained by minimizing the KullbackLeibler divergence between the model and the empirical distribution of the training data. A greedy algorithm determines how features are incrementally added to the field and an iterative scaling algorithm is used to estimate the optimal values of the weights. The random field models and techniques introduced in this paper differ from those common to much of the computer vision literature in that the underlying random fields are nonMarkovian and have a large number of parameters that must be estimated. Relations to other learning approaches, including decision trees, are given. As a demonstration of the method, we describe its application to the problem of automatic word classifica...
Variational inference for Dirichlet process mixtures
 Bayesian Analysis
, 2005
"... Abstract. Dirichlet process (DP) mixture models are the cornerstone of nonparametric Bayesian statistics, and the development of MonteCarlo Markov chain (MCMC) sampling methods for DP mixtures has enabled the application of nonparametric Bayesian methods to a variety of practical data analysis prob ..."
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Cited by 243 (25 self)
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Abstract. Dirichlet process (DP) mixture models are the cornerstone of nonparametric Bayesian statistics, and the development of MonteCarlo Markov chain (MCMC) sampling methods for DP mixtures has enabled the application of nonparametric Bayesian methods to a variety of practical data analysis problems. However, MCMC sampling can be prohibitively slow, and it is important to explore alternatives. One class of alternatives is provided by variational methods, a class of deterministic algorithms that convert inference problems into optimization problems (Opper and Saad 2001; Wainwright and Jordan 2003). Thus far, variational methods have mainly been explored in the parametric setting, in particular within the formalism of the exponential family (Attias 2000; Ghahramani and Beal 2001; Blei et al. 2003). In this paper, we present a variational inference algorithm for DP mixtures. We present experiments that compare the algorithm to Gibbs sampling algorithms for DP mixtures of Gaussians and present an application to a largescale image analysis problem.
Minimax Entropy Principle and Its Application to Texture Modeling
, 1997
"... This article proposes a general theory and methodology, called the minimax entropy principle, for building statistical models for images (or signals) in a variety of applications. This principle consists of two parts. The first is the maximum entropy principle for feature binding (or fusion): for a ..."
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Cited by 226 (46 self)
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This article proposes a general theory and methodology, called the minimax entropy principle, for building statistical models for images (or signals) in a variety of applications. This principle consists of two parts. The first is the maximum entropy principle for feature binding (or fusion): for a certain set of feature statistics, a distribution can be built to bind these feature statistics together by maximizing the entropy over all distributions that reproduce these feature statistics. The second part is the minimum entropy principle for feature selection: among all plausible sets of feature statistics, we choose the set whose maximum entropy distribution has the minimum entropy. Computational and inferential issues in both parts are addressed, in particular, a feature pursuit procedure is proposed for approximately selecting the optimal set of features. The model complexity is restricted because of the sample variation in the observed feature statistics. The minimax entropy principle is applied to texture modeling, where a novel Markov random field (MRF) model, called FRAME (Filter, Random field, And Minimax Entropy), is derived, and encouraging results are obtained in experiments on a variety of texture images. Relationship between our theory and the mechanisms of neural computation is also discussed.
A New Class of Upper Bounds on the Log Partition Function
 In Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 2002
"... Bounds on the log partition function are important in a variety of contexts, including approximate inference, model fitting, decision theory, and large deviations analysis [11, 5, 4]. We introduce a new class of upper bounds on the log partition function, based on convex combinations of distribution ..."
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Cited by 220 (33 self)
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Bounds on the log partition function are important in a variety of contexts, including approximate inference, model fitting, decision theory, and large deviations analysis [11, 5, 4]. We introduce a new class of upper bounds on the log partition function, based on convex combinations of distributions in the exponential domain, that is applicable to an arbitrary undirected graphical model. In the special case of convex combinations of treestructured distributions, we obtain a family of variational problems, similar to the Bethe free energy, but distinguished by the following desirable properties: (i) they are convex, and have a unique global minimum; and (ii) the global minimum gives an upper bound on the log partition function. The global minimum is defined by stationary conditions very similar to those defining xed points of belief propagation (BP) or treebased reparameterization [see 13, 14]. As with BP fixed points, the elements of the minimizing argument can be used as approximations to the marginals of the original model. The analysis described here can be extended to structures of higher treewidth (e.g., hypertrees), thereby making connections with more advanced approximations (e.g., Kikuchi and variants [15, 10]).
A unified framework for highdimensional analysis of Mestimators with decomposable regularizers
"... ..."
Convexity, Classification, and Risk Bounds
 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
, 2003
"... Many of the classification algorithms developed in the machine learning literature, including the support vector machine and boosting, can be viewed as minimum contrast methods that minimize a convex surrogate of the 01 loss function. The convexity makes these algorithms computationally efficien ..."
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Cited by 168 (15 self)
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Many of the classification algorithms developed in the machine learning literature, including the support vector machine and boosting, can be viewed as minimum contrast methods that minimize a convex surrogate of the 01 loss function. The convexity makes these algorithms computationally efficient. The use of a surrogate, however, has statistical consequences that must be balanced against the computational virtues of convexity. To study these issues, we provide a general quantitative relationship between the risk as assessed using the 01 loss and the risk as assessed using any nonnegative surrogate loss function. We show that this relationship gives nontrivial upper bounds on excess risk under the weakest possible condition on the loss function: that it satisfy a pointwise form of Fisher consistency for classification. The relationship is based on a simple variational transformation of the loss function that is easy to compute in many applications. We also present a refined version of this result in the case of low noise. Finally, we
A principled approach to detecting surprising events in video
 in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR
, 2005
"... Primates demonstrate unparalleled ability at rapidly orienting towards important events in complex dynamic environments. During rapid guidance of attention and gaze towards potential objects of interest or threats, often there is no time for detailed visual analysis. Thus, heuristic computations are ..."
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Cited by 117 (6 self)
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Primates demonstrate unparalleled ability at rapidly orienting towards important events in complex dynamic environments. During rapid guidance of attention and gaze towards potential objects of interest or threats, often there is no time for detailed visual analysis. Thus, heuristic computations are necessary to locate the most interesting events in quasi realtime. We present a new theory of sensory surprise, which provides a principled and computable shortcut to important information. We develop a model that computes instantaneous lowlevel surprise at every location in video streams. The algorithm significantly correlates with eye movements of two humans watching complex video clips, including television programs (17,936 frames, 2,152 saccadic gaze shifts). The system allows more sophisticated and timeconsuming image analysis to be efficiently focused onto the most surprising subsets of the incoming data. 1.