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Termination analysis with calling context graphs
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2006
"... Abstract. We introduce calling context graphs and various static and theorem proving based analyses that together provide a powerful method for proving termination of programs written in featurerich, first order, functional programming languages. In contrast to previous work, our method is highly a ..."
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Cited by 27 (6 self)
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Abstract. We introduce calling context graphs and various static and theorem proving based analyses that together provide a powerful method for proving termination of programs written in featurerich, first order, functional programming languages. In contrast to previous work, our method is highly automated and handles any source of looping behavior in such languages, including recursive definitions, mutual recursion, the use of recursive data structures, etc. We have implemented our method for the ACL2 programming language and evaluated the result using the ACL2 regression suite, which consists of numerous libraries with a total of over 10,000 function definitions. Our method was able to automatically detect termination of over 98 % of these functions. 1
Algorithms for ordinal arithmetic
 In 19th International Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE
, 2003
"... Abstract. Proofs of termination are essential for establishing the correct behavior of computing systems. There are various ways of establishing termination, but the most general involves the use of ordinals. An example of a theorem proving system in which ordinals are used to prove termination is A ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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Abstract. Proofs of termination are essential for establishing the correct behavior of computing systems. There are various ways of establishing termination, but the most general involves the use of ordinals. An example of a theorem proving system in which ordinals are used to prove termination is ACL2. In ACL2, every function defined must be shown to terminate using the ordinals up to ɛ0. We use a compact notation for the ordinals up to ɛ0 (exponentially more succinct than the one used by ACL2) and define efficient algorithms for ordinal addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation. In this paper we describe our notation and algorithms, prove their correctness, and analyze their complexity. 1
Efficient execution in an automated reasoning environment
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 2006
"... Abstract We describe a method to permit the user of a mathematical logic to write elegant logical definitions while allowing sound and efficient execution. We focus on the ACL2 logic and automated reasoning environment. ACL2 is used by industrial researchers to describe microprocessor designs and ot ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Abstract We describe a method to permit the user of a mathematical logic to write elegant logical definitions while allowing sound and efficient execution. We focus on the ACL2 logic and automated reasoning environment. ACL2 is used by industrial researchers to describe microprocessor designs and other complicated digital systems. Properties of the designs can be formally established with the theorem prover. But because ACL2 is also a functional programming language, the formal models can be executed as simulation engines. We implement features that afford these dual applications, namely formal proof and execution on industrial test suites. In particular, the features allow the user to install, in a logically sound way, alternative executable counterparts for logicallydefined functions. These alternatives are often much more efficient than the logically equivalent terms they replace. We discuss several applications of these features. 1 Introduction This paper is about a way to permit the functional programmer to prove efficientprograms correct. The idea is to allow the provision of two definitions of the program: an elegant definition that supports effective reasoning by a mechanizedtheorem prover, and an efficient definition for evaluation. A bridge of this sort,
Integrating reasoning about ordinal arithmetic into ACL2
 In Formal Methods in ComputerAided Design: 5th International Conference – FMCAD2004, LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. Termination poses one of the main challenges for mechanically verifying infinite state systems. In this paper, we develop a powerful and extensible framework based on the ordinals for reasoning about termination in a general purpose programming language. We have incorporated our work into ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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Abstract. Termination poses one of the main challenges for mechanically verifying infinite state systems. In this paper, we develop a powerful and extensible framework based on the ordinals for reasoning about termination in a general purpose programming language. We have incorporated our work into the ACL2 theorem proving system, thereby greatly extending its ability to automatically reason about termination. The resulting technology has been adopted into the newly released ACL2 version 2.8. We discuss the creation of this technology and present two case studies illustrating its effectiveness. 1
Ordinal arithmetic: Algorithms and mechanization
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 2006
"... Abstract. Termination proofs are of critical importance for establishing the correct behavior of both transformational and reactive computing systems. A general setting for establishing termination proofs involves the use of the ordinal numbers, an extension of the natural numbers into the transfini ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Abstract. Termination proofs are of critical importance for establishing the correct behavior of both transformational and reactive computing systems. A general setting for establishing termination proofs involves the use of the ordinal numbers, an extension of the natural numbers into the transfinite which were introduced by Cantor in the nineteenth century and are at the core of modern set theory. We present the first comprehensive treatment of ordinal arithmetic on compact ordinal notations and give efficient algorithms for various operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation. Using the ACL2 theorem proving system, we implemented our ordinal arithmetic algorithms, mechanically verified their correctness, and developed a library of theorems that can be used to significantly automate reasoning involving the ordinals. To enable users of the ACL2 system to fully utilize our work required that we modify ACL2, e.g., we replaced the underlying representation of the ordinals and added a large library of definitions and theorems. Our modifications are available starting with ACL2 version 2.8. 1.
D.: Partial Clock Functions in ACL2
 5th ACL2 Workshop. (2004
, 2004
"... Abstract J Moore has discovered an elegant approach for verifying state invariants of imperative programs without having to write a verification condition generator (VCG) or clock function. Users need only make assertions about selected cutpoint instructions of a program, such as loop tests and subr ..."
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Abstract J Moore has discovered an elegant approach for verifying state invariants of imperative programs without having to write a verification condition generator (VCG) or clock function. Users need only make assertions about selected cutpoint instructions of a program, such as loop tests and subroutine entry and exit points. ACL2's rewriter is then used to automatically propagate these assertions through the intervening instructions.
Mechanized Operational Semantics: The M Story
"... In this paper we explain how to formalize an “operational” or “statetransition” semantics of a von Neumann programming language in a functional programming language. By adopting an “interpretive” style, one can execute the model in the functional language to “run” programs in the von Neumann langua ..."
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In this paper we explain how to formalize an “operational” or “statetransition” semantics of a von Neumann programming language in a functional programming language. By adopting an “interpretive” style, one can execute the model in the functional language to “run” programs in the von Neumann language. Given the ability to reason about the functional language, one can use the model to reason about programs in the von Neumann language. In theory at least, such a formal semantics thus has a dual use: as a simulation engine and as an axiomatic basis for code proofs. The beauty of this approach is that no more logical machinery is needed than to support execution and proof in a functional language: no new program logics and no new metalogical tools like “verification condition generators” are needed. In this paper we will illustrate the techniques by formalizing a simple programming language called “M1,” for “Machine (or Model) 1.” It is loosely based on the Java Virtual Machine but has been simplified for pedagogical purposes. We will demonstrate the executability of M1 models. We will develop several styles of code proofs, including direct (symbolic simulation) proofs based on BoyerMoore “clock functions” and FloydHoare inductive assertion proofs. We construct proofs only for the the simplest of programs, namely an iterative factorial example. But to illustrate a more realistic use of the model, we discuss the correctness proof for an M1 implementation of the BoyerMoore fast string searching algorithm. We also define a compiler for a higher level language called “J1” and show how to do proofs about J1 code without benefit of a formal semantics for that code. Throughout we use the ACL2 logic and theorem proving system.
Logic and Formal Languages]Mechanical Theorem Proving
"... We present emerging results from our work on termination analysis of software systems. We have designed a static analysis algorithm which attains increased precision and flexibility by issuing queries to a theorem prover. We have implemented our algorithm and initial results show that we obtain a si ..."
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We present emerging results from our work on termination analysis of software systems. We have designed a static analysis algorithm which attains increased precision and flexibility by issuing queries to a theorem prover. We have implemented our algorithm and initial results show that we obtain a significant improvement over the current stateoftheart in termination analyses. We also outline how our approach, by integrating theorem proving queries into static analyses, can significantly impact the design of generalpurpose static analyses.
1 Abstract Recursion and Induction
, 2006
"... This paper introduces a formal mathematical theory that emphasizes recursive definition and inductive proof. Then it leads you through a series of exercises designed to help you learn how to prove theorems in such a setting. The exercises also stress how to define functions recursively in a way that ..."
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This paper introduces a formal mathematical theory that emphasizes recursive definition and inductive proof. Then it leads you through a series of exercises designed to help you learn how to prove theorems in such a setting. The exercises also stress how to define functions recursively in a way that makes their properties analyzable, how to state inductively provable theorems, how to decompose theorems into simpler lemmas, and how to simplify terms using previously proved lemmas. Answers to all the exercises are available in the companion document “Recursion and Induction: Answer Key. ” We urge you not to refer to the answer key except as a last resort. 2