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Verification of Concurrent Programs: The AutomataTheoretic Framework
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1987
"... We present an automatatheoretic framework to the verification of concurrent and nondeterministic programs. The basic idea is that to verify that a program P is correct one writes a program A that receives the computation of P as input and diverges only on incorrect computations of P . Now P is c ..."
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Cited by 47 (3 self)
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We present an automatatheoretic framework to the verification of concurrent and nondeterministic programs. The basic idea is that to verify that a program P is correct one writes a program A that receives the computation of P as input and diverges only on incorrect computations of P . Now P is correct if and only if a program PA , obtained by combining P and A, terminates. We formalize this idea in a framework of !automata with a recursive set of states. This unifies previous works on verification of fair termination and verification of temporal properties. 1 Introduction In this paper we present an automatatheoretic framework that unifies several trends in the area of concurrent program verification. The trends are temporal logic, model checking, automata theory, and fair termination. Let us start with a survey of these trends. In 1977 Pnueli suggested the use of temporal logic in the verification of concurrent programs [Pn77]. The basic motivation is that in the verificat...
ModelChecking of Causality Properties
, 1995
"... A temporal logic for causality (Tlc) is introduced. The logic is interpreted over causal structures corresponding to partial order executions of programs. For causal structures describing the behavior of a finite fixed set of processes, a Tlcformula can, equivalently, be interpreted over their line ..."
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Cited by 43 (10 self)
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A temporal logic for causality (Tlc) is introduced. The logic is interpreted over causal structures corresponding to partial order executions of programs. For causal structures describing the behavior of a finite fixed set of processes, a Tlcformula can, equivalently, be interpreted over their linearizations. The main result of the paper is a tableau construction that gives a singlyexponential translation from a Tlc formula ' to a Streett automaton that accepts the set of linearizations satisfying '. This allows both checking the validity of Tlc formulas and modelchecking of program properties. As the logic Tlc does not distinguish among different linearizations of the same partial order execution, partial order reduction techniques can be applied to alleviate the statespace explosion problem of modelchecking. 1 Introduction One of the most successful techniques for automatic verification of finitestate systems has been modelchecking . A modelchecking algorithm decides wheth...
The Parameterized Complexity of Some Problems in Logic and Linguistics (Extended Abstract)
 Proceedings Symposium on Logical Foundations of Computer Science (LFCS), SpringerVerlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2002
"... March 1, 2002 Rodney G. Downey Department of Mathematics, Victoria University P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand downey@math.vuw.ac.nz Michael R. Fellows, Bruce M. Kapron and Michael T. Hallett Department of Computer Science, University of Victoria Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 Canada ..."
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Cited by 29 (19 self)
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March 1, 2002 Rodney G. Downey Department of Mathematics, Victoria University P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand downey@math.vuw.ac.nz Michael R. Fellows, Bruce M. Kapron and Michael T. Hallett Department of Computer Science, University of Victoria Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 Canada contact author: mfellows@csr.uvic.ca H. Todd Wareham Department of Computer Science Memorial University of Newfoundland St. Johns, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 Canada harold@odie.cs.mun.ca Summary The theory of parameterized computational complexity introduced in [DF13] appears to be of wide applicability in the study of the complexity of concrete problems [ADF,BFH,DEF,FHW,FK]. We believe the theory may be of particular importance to practical applications of logic formalisms in programming language design and in system specification. The reason for this relevance is that while many computational problems in logic are extremely intractable generally, realistic applications often involve a "hidden parameter" according to which the computational problem may be feasible according to the more sensitive criteria of fixedparameter tractability that is the central issue in parameterized computational complexity. We illustrate how this theory may apply to problems in logic, programming languages and linguistics by describing some examples of both tractability and intractability results in these areas. It is our strong expectation that these results are just the tip of the iceberg of interesting applications of parameterized complexity theory to logic and linguistics. The main results described in this abstract are as follows. (1) The problem of determining whether a word x can be derived in k steps in a contextsensitive grammar G (Short CSL Derivation) is complete for the paramet...
Verification by Augmented Finitary Abstraction
 Information and Computation
, 1999
"... . The paper deals with the proof method of verification by finitary abstraction (vfa), which presents a feasible approach to the verification of the temporal properties of (potentially infinitestate) reactive systems. The method consists of a twostep process by which, in a first step, the system a ..."
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Cited by 29 (11 self)
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. The paper deals with the proof method of verification by finitary abstraction (vfa), which presents a feasible approach to the verification of the temporal properties of (potentially infinitestate) reactive systems. The method consists of a twostep process by which, in a first step, the system and its temporal specification are jointly abstracted into a finitestate system and a finitestate specification. The second step uses model checking to establish the validity of the abstracted property over the abstracted system. The vfa method can be considered as a viable alternative to verification by temporal deduction which, up to now, has been the main method generally applicable for verification of infinitestate systems. The paper presents a general recipe for the joint abstraction, which is shown to be sound , where soundness means that validity over the abstract system implies validity over the concrete (original) system. To make the method applicable for the verification of liven...
Safety Property Verification of ESTEREL Programs and Applications to Telecommunications Software
 In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification, Volume 939 of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1996
"... . We present a technique for automatically verifying lineartime temporal logic safety properties of programs written in ESTEREL, a formallydefined language for programming reactive systems. In our approach, lineartime temporal logic safety properties are first translated into ESTEREL programs ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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. We present a technique for automatically verifying lineartime temporal logic safety properties of programs written in ESTEREL, a formallydefined language for programming reactive systems. In our approach, lineartime temporal logic safety properties are first translated into ESTEREL programs that model these properties. Using the ESTEREL compiler, the translations are compiled in parallel with the ESTEREL program to be verified. A trivial reachability analysis of the output of the compiler then indicates whether or not the safety property is satisfied by the program. We describe two realworld software problems  ESTEREL versions of two features of the AT&T 5ESS R fl switching system  and one wellknown benchmark problem  the generalized railroad crossing problem  that we have verified using our technique and associated tool set. 1 Introduction The ESTEREL programming language [5] is a formallydefined, highlevel language designed specifically for progra...
Verification of timed automata via satisfiability checking
 In Proc. Formal Techniques in RealTime and FaultTolerant Systems FTRTFT'02, volume 2469 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2002
"... Abstract. In this paper we show how to translate boundedlength verification problems for timed automata into formulae in difference logic, a propositional logic enriched with timing constraints. We describe the principles of a satisfiability checker specialized for this logic that we have implement ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we show how to translate boundedlength verification problems for timed automata into formulae in difference logic, a propositional logic enriched with timing constraints. We describe the principles of a satisfiability checker specialized for this logic that we have implemented and report some preliminary experimental results. 1
Parametric Temporal Logic for "Model Measuring"
, 1999
"... ; F.3.1 [Logics and Meanings of Programs]: Specifying,Verifying and Reasoning about Programslogics of programs General Terms: Theory, Verification Additional Key Words and Phrases: Model checking, quantitative analysis, temporal logic A preliminary version of this paper appeared in ICALP'99: P ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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; F.3.1 [Logics and Meanings of Programs]: Specifying,Verifying and Reasoning about Programslogics of programs General Terms: Theory, Verification Additional Key Words and Phrases: Model checking, quantitative analysis, temporal logic A preliminary version of this paper appeared in ICALP'99: Proceedings of the 26th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1644, pp. 159168, SpringerVerlag, 1999. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER award CCR9734115, by DARPA/NASA grant NAG21214, by SRC contract 99TJ688, and by an Alfred P. Sloan Faculty Fellowship. Authors' addresses: R. Alur and S. La Torre: Dept. of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania, 200 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, email: falur,latorreg@cis.upenn.edu; K. Etessami and D. Peled: Bell Labs, 700 Mountain Ave., Murray Hill, NJ 079
ModelChecking for a Subclass of Event Structures
 Proc. of TACAS'97, LNCS 1217
, 1997
"... . A finite representation of the prime event structure corresponding to the behaviour of a program is suggested. The algorithm of linear complexity using this representation for model checking of the formulas of Discrete Event Structure Logic without past modalities is given. A method of building fi ..."
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Cited by 15 (8 self)
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. A finite representation of the prime event structure corresponding to the behaviour of a program is suggested. The algorithm of linear complexity using this representation for model checking of the formulas of Discrete Event Structure Logic without past modalities is given. A method of building finite representations of event structures in an efficient way by applying partial order reductions is provided. 1 Introduction Model checking is one of the most successful methods of automatic verification of program properties. A modelchecking algorithm decides whether a finitestate concurrent system satisfies its specification, given as a formula of a temporal logic [3, 10]. Behaviour of a concurrent system can be modeled in two ways. In the interleaving semantics, the meaning of a program is an execution tree, temporallogic assertions are interpreted over paths of this tree. In partialorder semantics (or event structure semantics), behaviour is an event structure, where the ordering r...
Verification by augmented abstraction: The automatatheoretic view
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 2001
"... ..."
An Interleaving Model for Real Time
, 1990
"... . The interleaving model is both adequate and sufficiently abstract to allow for the practical specification and verification of many properties of concurrent systems. We incorporate real time into this model by defining the abstract notion of a realtime transition system as a conservative extensio ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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. The interleaving model is both adequate and sufficiently abstract to allow for the practical specification and verification of many properties of concurrent systems. We incorporate real time into this model by defining the abstract notion of a realtime transition system as a conservative extension of traditional transition systems: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lowerbound and upperbound realtime requirements for transitions. We present proof rules to establish lower and upper realtime bounds for response properties of realtime transition systems. This proof system can be used to verify boundedinvariance and boundedresponse properties, such as timely termination of sharedvariables multiprocess systems, whose semantics is defined in terms of realtime transition systems. 1 This research was supported in part by an IBM graduate fellowship, by the National Science Foundation grants CCR8911512 and CCR8913641, by the Defense...