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Tweakable block ciphers
, 2002
"... Abstract. We propose a new cryptographic primitive, the “tweakable block cipher. ” Such a cipher has not only the usual inputs—message and cryptographic key—but also a third input, the “tweak. ” The tweak serves much the same purpose that an initialization vector does for CBC mode or that a nonce do ..."
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Cited by 153 (4 self)
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Abstract. We propose a new cryptographic primitive, the “tweakable block cipher. ” Such a cipher has not only the usual inputs—message and cryptographic key—but also a third input, the “tweak. ” The tweak serves much the same purpose that an initialization vector does for CBC mode or that a nonce does for OCB mode. Our proposal thus brings this feature down to the primitive blockcipher level, instead of incorporating it only at the higher modesofoperation levels. We suggest that (1) tweakable block ciphers are easy to design, (2) the extra cost of making a block cipher “tweakable ” is small, and (3) it is easier to design and prove modes of operation based on tweakable block ciphers.
The Software Performance of AuthenticatedEncryption Modes
, 2011
"... We study the software performance of authenticatedencryption modes CCM, GCM, and OCB. Across a variety of platforms, we find OCB to be substantially faster than either alternative. For example, on an Intel i5 (“Clarkdale”) processor, good implementations of CCM, GCM, and OCB encrypt at around 4.2 c ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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We study the software performance of authenticatedencryption modes CCM, GCM, and OCB. Across a variety of platforms, we find OCB to be substantially faster than either alternative. For example, on an Intel i5 (“Clarkdale”) processor, good implementations of CCM, GCM, and OCB encrypt at around 4.2 cpb, 3.7 cpb, and 1.5 cpb, while CTR mode requires about 1.3 cpb. Still we find room for algorithmic improvements to OCB, showing how to trim one blockcipher call (most of the time, assuming a counterbased nonce) and reduce latency. Our findings contrast with those of McGrew and Viega (2004), who claimed similar performance for GCM and OCB. Key words: authenticated encryption, cryptographic standards, encryption speed, modes of
PseudoRandom Functions and Parallelizable Modes of Operations of a Block Cipher
"... Abstract. This paper considers the construction and analysis of pseudorandom functions (PRFs) with specific reference to modes of operations of a block cipher. In the context of message authentication codes (MACs), earlier independent work by Bernstein and Vaudenay show how to reduce the analysis o ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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Abstract. This paper considers the construction and analysis of pseudorandom functions (PRFs) with specific reference to modes of operations of a block cipher. In the context of message authentication codes (MACs), earlier independent work by Bernstein and Vaudenay show how to reduce the analysis of relevant PRFs to some probability calculations. In the first part of the paper, we revisit this result and use it to prove a general result on constructions which use a PRF with a “small ” domain to build a PRF with a “large ” domain. This result is used to analyse two new parallelizable PRFs which are suitable for use as MAC schemes. The first scheme, called iPMAC, is based on a block cipher and improves upon the wellknown PMAC algorithm. The improvements consist in faster masking operations and the removal of a design stage discrete logarithm computation. The second scheme, called VPMAC, uses a keyed compression function rather than a block cipher. The only previously known compression function based parallelizable PRF is called the protected counter sum (PCS) and is due to Bernstein. VPMAC improves upon PCS by requiring lesser number of calls to the compression function. The second part of the paper takes a new look at the construction and analysis of modes of operations for authenticated encryption (AE) and for authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). Usually, the most complicated part in the security analysis of such modes is the analysis of authentication
A Simple and Generic Construction of Authenticated Encryption With Associated Data
"... Abstract. We revisit the problem of constructing a protocol for performing authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). A technique is described which combines a collision resistant hash function with a protocol for authenticated encryption (AE). The technique is both simple and generic and ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Abstract. We revisit the problem of constructing a protocol for performing authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). A technique is described which combines a collision resistant hash function with a protocol for authenticated encryption (AE). The technique is both simple and generic and does not require any additional key material beyond that of the AE protocol. Concrete instantiations are shown where a 256bit hash function is combined with some known singlepass AE protocols employing either 128bit or 256bit block ciphers. This results in possible efficiency improvement in the processing of the header.
Optimally Secure Tweakable Blockciphers
 Software Encryption  FSE 2015, volume 9054 of LNCS
, 2015
"... Abstract. We consider the generic design of a tweakable blockcipher from one or more evaluations of a classical blockcipher, in such a way that all input and output wires are of size n bits. As a first contribution, we show that any tweakable blockcipher with one primitive call and arbitrary linear ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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Abstract. We consider the generic design of a tweakable blockcipher from one or more evaluations of a classical blockcipher, in such a way that all input and output wires are of size n bits. As a first contribution, we show that any tweakable blockcipher with one primitive call and arbitrary linear pre and postprocessing functions can be distinguished from an ideal one with an attack complexity of about 2n/2. Next, we introduce the tweakable blockcipher F ̃ [1]. It consists of one multiplication and one blockcipher call with tweakdependent key, and achieves 22n/3 security. Finally, we introduce F ̃ [2], which makes two blockcipher calls, one of which with tweakdependent key, and achieves optimal 2n security. Both schemes are more efficient than all existing beyond birthday bound tweakable blockciphers known to date, as long as one blockcipher key renewal is cheaper than one blockcipher evaluation plus one universal hash evaluation.
On Modes of Operations of a Block Cipher for Authentication and Authenticated Encryption
"... Abstract. This work deals with the various requirements of encryption and authentication in cryptographic applications. The approach is to construct suitable modes of operations of a block cipher to achieve the relevant goals. A variety of schemes suitable for specific applications are presented. W ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Abstract. This work deals with the various requirements of encryption and authentication in cryptographic applications. The approach is to construct suitable modes of operations of a block cipher to achieve the relevant goals. A variety of schemes suitable for specific applications are presented. While none of the schemes are built completely from scratch, there is a common unifying framework which connects them. All the schemes described have been implemented and the implementation details are publicly available. Performance figures are presented when the block cipher is the AES and the Intel AESNI instructions are used. These figures suggest that the constructions presented here compare well with previous works such as the famous OCB mode of operation. In terms of features, the constructions provide several new offerings which are not present in earlier works. This work significantly widens the range of choices of an actual designer of cryptographic system.
Modes of Operations for Encryption and Authentication Using Stream Ciphers Supporting an Initialisation Vector
"... Abstract. We describe a systematic framework for using a stream cipher supporting an initialisation vector (IV) to perform various tasks of authentication and authenticated encryption. These include message authentication code (MAC), authenticated encryption (AE), authenticated encryption with assoc ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Abstract. We describe a systematic framework for using a stream cipher supporting an initialisation vector (IV) to perform various tasks of authentication and authenticated encryption. These include message authentication code (MAC), authenticated encryption (AE), authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) and deterministic authenticated encryption (DAE) with associated data. Several schemes are presented and rigourously analysed. A major component of the constructions is a keyed hash function having provably low collision and differential probabilities. Methods are described to efficiently extend such hash functions to take multiple inputs. In particular, doubleinput hash functions are required for the construction of AEAD schemes. An important practical aspect of our work is that a designer can combine offtheshelf stream ciphers with offtheshelf hash functions to obtain secure primitives for MAC, AE, AEAD and DAE(AD).
XPX: Generalized Tweakable EvenMansour with Improved Security Guarantees. Cryptology ePrint Archive
"... Abstract. We present XPX, a tweakable blockcipher based on a single permutation P. On input of a tweak (t11, t12, t21, t22) ∈ T and a message m, it outputs ciphertext c = P (m⊕∆1)⊕∆2, where ∆1 = t11k⊕t12P (k) and ∆2 = t21k⊕t22P (k). Here, the tweak space T is required to satisfy a certain set of tr ..."
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Abstract. We present XPX, a tweakable blockcipher based on a single permutation P. On input of a tweak (t11, t12, t21, t22) ∈ T and a message m, it outputs ciphertext c = P (m⊕∆1)⊕∆2, where ∆1 = t11k⊕t12P (k) and ∆2 = t21k⊕t22P (k). Here, the tweak space T is required to satisfy a certain set of trivial conditions (such as (0, 0, 0, 0) 6 ∈ T). We prove that XPX with any such tweak space is a strong tweakable pseudorandom permutation. Next, we consider the security of XPX under relatedkey attacks, where the adversary can freely select a keyderiving function upon every evaluation. We prove that XPX achieves various levels of relatedkey security, depending on the set of keyderiving functions and the properties of T. For instance, if t12, t22 6 = 0 and (t21, t22) 6 = (0, 1) for all tweaks, XPX is XORrelatedkey secure. XPX generalizes EvenMansour (EM), but also Rogaway’s XEX based on EM, and tweakable EM used in Minalpher. As such, XPX finds a wide range of applications. We show how our results on XPX directly imply relatedkey security of the authenticated encryption schemes PrøstCOPA and Minalpher, and how a straightforward adjustment to the MAC function Chaskey and to keyed Sponges makes them provably relatedkey secure.
Towards SideChannel Resistant Block Cipher Usage or Can We Encrypt Without SideChannel Countermeasures?
"... Abstract. Based on rekeying techniques by Abdalla, Bellare, and Borst [1, 2], we consider two blackbox secure block cipher based symmetric encryption schemes, which we prove secure in the physically observable cryptography model. They are proven sidechannel secure against a strong type of adversa ..."
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Abstract. Based on rekeying techniques by Abdalla, Bellare, and Borst [1, 2], we consider two blackbox secure block cipher based symmetric encryption schemes, which we prove secure in the physically observable cryptography model. They are proven sidechannel secure against a strong type of adversary that can adaptively choose the leakage function as long as the leaked information is bounded. It turns out that our simple construction is sidechannel secure against all types of attacks that satisfy some reasonable assumptions. In particular, the security turns out to be negligible in the block cipher’s block size n, for all attacks. We also show that our ideas result in an interesting alternative to the implementation of block ciphers using different logic styles or masking countermeasures. 1
Tweakable Enciphering Schemes From Stream Ciphers With IV
"... Abstract. We present the first construction of a tweakable enciphering scheme from a stream cipher supporting an initialization vector. This construction can take advantage of the recent advances in hardware efficient stream ciphers to yield disk encryption systems with a very small hardware footpri ..."
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Abstract. We present the first construction of a tweakable enciphering scheme from a stream cipher supporting an initialization vector. This construction can take advantage of the recent advances in hardware efficient stream ciphers to yield disk encryption systems with a very small hardware footprint. Such systems will be attractive for resource constrained devices.