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Bayesian Experimental Design: A Review
 Statistical Science
, 1995
"... This paper reviews the literature on Bayesian experimental design, both for linear and nonlinear models. A unified view of the topic is presented by putting experimental design in a decision theoretic framework. This framework justifies many optimality criteria, and opens new possibilities. Various ..."
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Cited by 213 (1 self)
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This paper reviews the literature on Bayesian experimental design, both for linear and nonlinear models. A unified view of the topic is presented by putting experimental design in a decision theoretic framework. This framework justifies many optimality criteria, and opens new possibilities. Various design criteria become part of a single, coherent approach.
An InformationTheoretic Model for Steganography
, 1998
"... An informationtheoretic model for steganography with passive adversaries is proposed. The adversary's task of distinguishing between an innocentcover message C and a modified message S containing a secret part is interpreted as a hypothesis testing problem. The security of a steganographic sys ..."
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Cited by 209 (3 self)
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An informationtheoretic model for steganography with passive adversaries is proposed. The adversary's task of distinguishing between an innocentcover message C and a modified message S containing a secret part is interpreted as a hypothesis testing problem. The security of a steganographic system is quantified in terms of the relative entropy (or discrimination) between PC and PS . Several secure steganographic schemes are presented in this model; one of them is a universal information hiding scheme based on universal data compression techniques that requires no knowledge of the covertext statistics.
Genomic control for association studies
 Biometrics
, 1999
"... you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, noncommercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact inform ..."
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Cited by 204 (6 self)
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you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, noncommercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
Theory Refinement on Bayesian Networks
, 1991
"... Theory refinement is the task of updating a domain theory in the light of new cases, to be done automatically or with some expert assistance. The problem of theory refinement under uncertainty is reviewed here in the context of Bayesian statistics, a theory of belief revision. The problem is reduced ..."
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Cited by 199 (5 self)
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Theory refinement is the task of updating a domain theory in the light of new cases, to be done automatically or with some expert assistance. The problem of theory refinement under uncertainty is reviewed here in the context of Bayesian statistics, a theory of belief revision. The problem is reduced to an incremental learning task as follows: the learning system is initially primed with a partial theory supplied by a domain expert, and thereafter maintains its own internal representation of alternative theories which is able to be interrogated by the domain expert and able to be incrementally refined from data. Algorithms for refinement of Bayesian networks are presented to illustrate what is meant by "partial theory", "alternative theory representation ", etc. The algorithms are an incremental variant of batch learning algorithms from the literature so can work well in batch and incremental mode. 1 Introduction Theory refinement is the task of updating a domain theory in the light of...
Analysis Of Multiresolution Image Denoising Schemes Using GeneralizedGaussian Priors
 IEEE TRANS. INFO. THEORY
, 1998
"... In this paper, we investigate various connections between wavelet shrinkage methods in image processing and Bayesian estimation using Generalized Gaussian priors. We present fundamental properties of the shrinkage rules implied by Generalized Gaussian and other heavytailed priors. This allows us to ..."
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Cited by 185 (9 self)
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In this paper, we investigate various connections between wavelet shrinkage methods in image processing and Bayesian estimation using Generalized Gaussian priors. We present fundamental properties of the shrinkage rules implied by Generalized Gaussian and other heavytailed priors. This allows us to show a simple relationship between differentiability of the logprior at zero and the sparsity of the estimates, as well as an equivalence between universal thresholding schemes and Bayesian estimation using a certain Generalized Gaussian prior.
Efficient approximations for the marginal likelihood of Bayesian networks with hidden variables
 Machine Learning
, 1997
"... We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MD ..."
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Cited by 183 (12 self)
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We discuss Bayesian methods for learning Bayesian networks when data sets are incomplete. In particular, we examine asymptotic approximations for the marginal likelihood of incomplete data given a Bayesian network. We consider the Laplace approximation and the less accurate but more efficient BIC/MDL approximation. We also consider approximations proposed by Draper (1993) and Cheeseman and Stutz (1995). These approximations are as efficient as BIC/MDL, but their accuracy has not been studied in any depth. We compare the accuracy of these approximations under the assumption that the Laplace approximation is the most accurate. In experiments using synthetic data generated from discrete naiveBayes models having a hidden root node, we find that (1) the BIC/MDL measure is the least accurate, having a bias in favor of simple models, and (2) the Draper and CS measures are the most accurate. 1
Learning with Labeled and Unlabeled Data
, 2001
"... In this paper, on the one hand, we aim to give a review on literature dealing with the problem of supervised learning aided by additional unlabeled data. On the other hand, being a part of the author's first year PhD report, the paper serves as a frame to bundle related work by the author as we ..."
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Cited by 174 (3 self)
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In this paper, on the one hand, we aim to give a review on literature dealing with the problem of supervised learning aided by additional unlabeled data. On the other hand, being a part of the author's first year PhD report, the paper serves as a frame to bundle related work by the author as well as numerous suggestions for potential future work. Therefore, this work contains more speculative and partly subjective material than the reader might expect from a literature review. We give a rigorous definition of the problem and relate it to supervised and unsupervised learning. The crucial role of prior knowledge is put forward, and we discuss the important notion of inputdependent regularization. We postulate a number of baseline methods, being algorithms or algorithmic schemes which can more or less straightforwardly be applied to the problem, without the need for genuinely new concepts. However, some of them might serve as basis for a genuine method. In the literature revi...
Hidden Markov models for sequence analysis: extension and analysis of the basic method
, 1996
"... Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a highly effective means of modeling a family of unaligned sequences or a common motif within a set of unaligned sequences. The trained HMM can then be used for discrimination or multiple alignment. The basic mathematical description of an HMM and its expectationmaxi ..."
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Cited by 174 (21 self)
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Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a highly effective means of modeling a family of unaligned sequences or a common motif within a set of unaligned sequences. The trained HMM can then be used for discrimination or multiple alignment. The basic mathematical description of an HMM and its expectationmaximization training procedure is relatively straightforward. In this paper, we review the mathematical extensions and heuristics that move the method from the theoretical to the practical. Then, we experimentally analyze the effectiveness of model regularization, dynamic model modification, and optimization strategies. Finally it is demonstrated on the SH2 domain how a domain can be found from unaligned sequences using a special model type. The experimental work was completed with the aid of the Sequence Alignment and Modeling software suite. 1 Introduction Since their introduction to the computational biology community (Haussler et al., 1993; Krogh et al., 1994a), hidden Markov models (HMMs...
Measuring Expectations
, 2004
"... This article discusses the history underlying the new literature, describes some of what has been learned thus far, and looks ahead towards making further progress ..."
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Cited by 168 (11 self)
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This article discusses the history underlying the new literature, describes some of what has been learned thus far, and looks ahead towards making further progress
Bayesian color constancy
 Journal of the Optical Society of America A
, 1997
"... The problem of color constancy may be solved if we can recover the physical properties of illuminants and surfaces from photosensor responses. We consider this problem within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. First, we model the relation among illuminants, surfaces, and photosensor response ..."
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Cited by 154 (23 self)
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The problem of color constancy may be solved if we can recover the physical properties of illuminants and surfaces from photosensor responses. We consider this problem within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. First, we model the relation among illuminants, surfaces, and photosensor responses. Second, we construct prior distributions that describe the probability that particular illuminants and surfaces exist in the world. Given a set of photosensor responses, we can then use Bayes’s rule to compute the posterior distribution for the illuminants and the surfaces in the scene. There are two widely used methods for obtaining a single best estimate from a posterior distribution. These are maximum a posteriori (MAP) and minimum meansquarederror (MMSE) estimation. We argue that neither is appropriate for perception problems. We describe a new estimator, which we call the maximum local mass (MLM) estimate, that integrates local probability density. The new method uses an optimality criterion that is appropriate for perception tasks: It finds the most probable approximately correct answer. For the case of low observation noise, we provide an efficient approximation. We develop the MLM estimator for the colorconstancy problem in which flat matte surfaces are uniformly illuminated. In simulations we show that the MLM method performs better than the MAP estimator and better than a number of standard colorconstancy algorithms. We note conditions under which even the optimal estimator produces poor estimates: when the spectral properties of the surfaces in the scene are biased. © 1997 Optical Society of America [S07403232(97)016074] 1.