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72
A Survey of Optimization by Building and Using Probabilistic Models
 COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS
, 1999
"... This paper summarizes the research on populationbased probabilistic search algorithms based on modeling promising solutions by estimating their probability distribution and using the constructed model to guide the further exploration of the search space. It settles the algorithms in the field of ge ..."
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Cited by 278 (82 self)
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This paper summarizes the research on populationbased probabilistic search algorithms based on modeling promising solutions by estimating their probability distribution and using the constructed model to guide the further exploration of the search space. It settles the algorithms in the field of genetic and evolutionary computation where they have been originated. All methods are classified into a few classes according to the complexity of the class of models they use. Algorithms from each of these classes are briefly described and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed.
Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm = Bayesian Optimization Algorithm + Niching + Local Structures
, 2001
"... The paper describes the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm which combines the Bayesian optimization algorithm, local structures in Bayesian networks, and a powerful niching technique. The proposed algorithm is able to solve hierarchical traps and other difficult problems very efficiently. ..."
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Cited by 255 (63 self)
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The paper describes the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm which combines the Bayesian optimization algorithm, local structures in Bayesian networks, and a powerful niching technique. The proposed algorithm is able to solve hierarchical traps and other difficult problems very efficiently.
Linkage Problem, Distribution Estimation, and Bayesian Networks
, 2000
"... This paper proposes an algorithm that uses an estimation of the joint distribution of promising solutions in order to generate new candidate solutions. The algorithm is settled into the context of genetic and evolutionary computation and the algorithms based on the estimation of distributions. Th ..."
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Cited by 88 (18 self)
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This paper proposes an algorithm that uses an estimation of the joint distribution of promising solutions in order to generate new candidate solutions. The algorithm is settled into the context of genetic and evolutionary computation and the algorithms based on the estimation of distributions. The proposed algorithm is called the Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA). To estimate the distribution of promising solutions, the techniques for modeling multivariate data by Bayesian networks are used. TheBOA identifies, reproduces, and mixes building blocks up to a specified order. It is independent of the ordering of the variables in strings representing the solutions. Moreover, prior information about the problem can be incorporated into the algorithm, but it is not essential. First experiments were done with additively decomposable problems with both nonoverlapping as well as overlapping building blocks. The proposed algorithm is able to solve all but one of the tested problems in linear or close to linear time with respect to the problem size. Except for the maximal order of interactions to be covered, the algorithm does not use any prior knowledge about the problem. The BOA represents a step toward alleviating the problem of identifying and mixing building blocks correctly to obtain good solutions for problems with very limited domain information.
Escaping Hierarchical Traps with Competent Genetic Algorithms
 Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO2001
, 2001
"... To solve hierarchical problems, one must be able to learn the linkage, represent partial solutions efficiently, and assure effective niching. We propose the hierarchical ... ..."
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Cited by 85 (46 self)
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To solve hierarchical problems, one must be able to learn the linkage, represent partial solutions efficiently, and assure effective niching. We propose the hierarchical ...
Hierarchical BOA Solves Ising Spin Glasses and MAXSAT
 In Proc. of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO 2003), number 2724 in LNCS
, 2003
"... Theoretical and empirical evidence exists that the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm (hBOA) can solve challenging hierarchical problems and anything easier. This paper applies hBOA to two important classes of realworld problems: Ising spinglass systems and maximum satis ability (MAX ..."
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Cited by 45 (17 self)
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Theoretical and empirical evidence exists that the hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm (hBOA) can solve challenging hierarchical problems and anything easier. This paper applies hBOA to two important classes of realworld problems: Ising spinglass systems and maximum satis ability (MAXSAT). The paper shows how easy it is to apply hBOA to realworld optimization problems. The results indicate that hBOA is capable of solving enormously dicult problems that cannot be solved by other optimizers and still provide competitive or better performance than problemspeci c approaches on other problems. The results thus con rm that hBOA is a practical, robust, and scalable technique for solving challenging realworld problems.
Feature Subset Selection by Bayesian networks: a comparison with genetic and sequential algorithms
"... In this paper we perform a comparison among FSSEBNA, a randomized, populationbased and evolutionary algorithm, and two genetic and other two sequential search approaches in the well known Feature Subset Selection (FSS) problem. In FSSEBNA, the FSS problem, stated as a search problem, uses the E ..."
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Cited by 43 (15 self)
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In this paper we perform a comparison among FSSEBNA, a randomized, populationbased and evolutionary algorithm, and two genetic and other two sequential search approaches in the well known Feature Subset Selection (FSS) problem. In FSSEBNA, the FSS problem, stated as a search problem, uses the EBNA (Estimation of Bayesian Network Algorithm) search engine, an algorithm within the EDA (Estimation of Distribution Algorithm) approach. The EDA paradigm is born from the roots of the GA community in order to explicitly discover the relationships among the features of the problem and not disrupt them by genetic recombination operators. The EDA paradigm avoids the use of recombination operators and it guarantees the evolution of the population of solutions and the discovery of these relationships by the factorization of the probability distribution of best individuals in each generation of the search. In EBNA, this factorization is carried out by a Bayesian network induced by a chea...
Scalability Problems of Simple Genetic Algorithms
 Evolutionary Computation
, 1999
"... Scalable evolutionary computation has become an intensively studied research topic in recent years. The issue of scalability is predominant in any field of algorithmic design, but it became particularly relevant for the design of competent genetic algorithms once the scalability problems of simpl ..."
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Cited by 38 (4 self)
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Scalable evolutionary computation has become an intensively studied research topic in recent years. The issue of scalability is predominant in any field of algorithmic design, but it became particularly relevant for the design of competent genetic algorithms once the scalability problems of simple genetic algorithms were understood. Here we present some of the work that has aided in getting a clear insight in the scalability problems of simple genetic algorithms. Particularly, we discuss the important issue of building block mixing. We show how the need for mixing places a boundary in the GA parameter space that, together with the boundary from the schema theorem, delimits the region where the GA converges reliably to the optimum in problems of bounded difficulty. This region shrinks rapidly with increasing problem size unless the building blocks are tightly linked in the problem coding structure. In addition, we look at how straightforward extensions of the simple genetic a...
Bayesian Optimization Algorithm, Decision Graphs, and Occam's Razor
 Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO2001), 519–526. Also IlliGAL
, 2001
"... This paper discusses the use of various scoring metrics in the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA) which uses Bayesian networks to model promising solutions and generate the new ones. The use of decision graphs in Bayesian networks to improve the performance of the BOA is proposed. To favor simple ..."
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Cited by 37 (20 self)
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This paper discusses the use of various scoring metrics in the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA) which uses Bayesian networks to model promising solutions and generate the new ones. The use of decision graphs in Bayesian networks to improve the performance of the BOA is proposed. To favor simple models, a complexity measure is incorporated into the BayesianDirichlet metric for Bayesian networks with decision graphs. The presented modi cations are compared on a number of interesting problems.
Evolutionary algorithm with the guided mutation for the maximum clique problem
 IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
, 2005
"... Abstract—Estimation of distribution algorithms sample new solutions (offspring) from a probability model which characterizes the distribution of promising solutions in the search space at each generation. The location information of solutions found so far (i.e., the actual positions of these solutio ..."
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Cited by 31 (11 self)
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Abstract—Estimation of distribution algorithms sample new solutions (offspring) from a probability model which characterizes the distribution of promising solutions in the search space at each generation. The location information of solutions found so far (i.e., the actual positions of these solutions in the search space) is not directly used for generating offspring in most existing estimation of distribution algorithms. This paper introduces a new operator, called guided mutation. Guided mutation generates offspring through combination of global statistical information and the location information of solutions found so far. An evolutionary algorithm with guided mutation (EA/G) for the maximum clique problem is proposed in this paper. Besides guided mutation, EA/G adopts a strategy for searching different search areas in different search phases. Marchiori’s heuristic is applied to each new solution to produce a maximal clique in EA/G. Experimental results show that EA/G outperforms the heuristic genetic algorithm of Marchiori (the best evolutionary algorithm reported so far) and a MIMIC algorithm on DIMACS benchmark graphs. Index Terms—Estimation of distribution algorithms, evolutionary algorithm, guided mutation, heuristics, hybrid genetic algorithm, maximum clique problem (MCP). I.
Efficient Linkage Discovery by Limited Probing. Evolutionary computation 12
, 2004
"... Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of determining the epistatic linkage of a function from binary strings to the reals. There is a close relationship between the Walsh coefficients of the function and “probes ” (or perturbations) of the function. This relationship leads to two linkage detect ..."
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Cited by 24 (3 self)
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Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of determining the epistatic linkage of a function from binary strings to the reals. There is a close relationship between the Walsh coefficients of the function and “probes ” (or perturbations) of the function. This relationship leads to two linkage detection algorithms that generalize earlier algorithms of the same type. A rigorous complexity analysis is given of the first algorithm. The second algorithm not only detects the epistatic linkage, but also computes all of the Walsh coefficients. This algorithm is much more efficient than previous algorithms for the same purpose. 1