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131
Higher correlations of divisor sums related to primes, II: Variations of . . .
, 2007
"... We calculate the triple correlations for the truncated divisor sum λR(n). The λR(n) behave over certain averages just as the prime counting von Mangoldt function Λ(n) does or is conjectured to do. We also calculate the mixed (with a factor of Λ(n)) correlations. The results for the moments up to the ..."
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Cited by 28 (6 self)
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We calculate the triple correlations for the truncated divisor sum λR(n). The λR(n) behave over certain averages just as the prime counting von Mangoldt function Λ(n) does or is conjectured to do. We also calculate the mixed (with a factor of Λ(n)) correlations. The results for the moments up to the third degree, and therefore the implications for the distribution of primes in short intervals, are the same as those we obtained (in the first paper with this title) by using the simpler approximation ΛR(n). However, when λR(n) is used, the error in the singular series approximation is often much smaller than what ΛR(n) allows. Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH) for Dirichlet Lfunctions, we obtain an Ω±result for the variation of the error term in the prime number theorem. Formerly, our knowledge under GRH was restricted to Ωresults for the absolute value of this variation. An important ingredient in the last part of this work is a recent result due to Montgomery and Soundararajan which makes it possible for us to dispense with a large error term in the evaluation of a certain singular series average. We believe that our results on the sums λR(n) and ΛR(n) can be employed in diverse problems concerning primes.
A correspondence principle between (hyper)graph theory and probability theory, and the (hyper)graph removal lemma, preprint
"... Abstract. We introduce a correspondence principle (analogous to the Furstenberg correspondence principle) that allows one to extract an infinite random graph or hypergraph from a sequence of increasingly large deterministic graphs or hypergraphs. As an application we present a new (infinitary) proof ..."
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Cited by 21 (5 self)
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Abstract. We introduce a correspondence principle (analogous to the Furstenberg correspondence principle) that allows one to extract an infinite random graph or hypergraph from a sequence of increasingly large deterministic graphs or hypergraphs. As an application we present a new (infinitary) proof of the hypergraph removal lemma of NagleSchachtRödlSkokan and Gowers, which does not require the hypergraph regularity lemma and requires significantly less computation. This in turn gives new proofs of several corollaries of the hypergraph removal lemma, such as Szemerédi’s theorem on arithmetic progressions. 1.
Computational Differential Privacy
"... The definition of differential privacy has recently emerged as a leading standard of privacy guarantees for algorithms on statistical databases. We offer several relaxations of the definition which require privacy guarantees to hold only against efficient—i.e., computationallybounded—adversaries. W ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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The definition of differential privacy has recently emerged as a leading standard of privacy guarantees for algorithms on statistical databases. We offer several relaxations of the definition which require privacy guarantees to hold only against efficient—i.e., computationallybounded—adversaries. We establish various relationships among these notions, and in doing so, we observe their close connection with the theory of pseudodense sets by Reingold et al. [1]. We extend the dense model theorem of Reingold et al. to demonstrate equivalence between two definitions (indistinguishability and simulatabilitybased) of computational differential privacy. Our computational analogues of differential privacy seem to allow for more accurate constructions than the standard informationtheoretic analogues. In particular, in the context of private approximation of the distance between two vectors, we present a differentiallyprivate protocol for computing the approximation, and contrast it with a substantially more accurate protocol that is only computationally differentially private.
The dichotomy between structure and randomness, arithmetic progressions, and the primes
"... Abstract. A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that all subsets of the integers with positive upper density will contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. There are many different proofs of this deep theorem, but they are all based on a fundamental dichotomy between structure and randomness ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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Abstract. A famous theorem of Szemerédi asserts that all subsets of the integers with positive upper density will contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. There are many different proofs of this deep theorem, but they are all based on a fundamental dichotomy between structure and randomness, which in turn leads (roughly speaking) to a decomposition of any object into a structured (lowcomplexity) component and a random (discorrelated) component. Important examples of these types of decompositions include the Furstenberg structure theorem and the Szemerédi regularity lemma. One recent application of this dichotomy is the result of Green and Tao establishing that the prime numbers contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions (despite having density zero in the integers). The power of this dichotomy is evidenced by the fact that the GreenTao theorem requires surprisingly little technology from analytic number theory, relying instead almost exclusively on manifestations of this dichotomy such as Szemerédi’s theorem. In this paper we survey various manifestations of this dichotomy in combinatorics, harmonic analysis, ergodic theory, and number theory. As we hope to emphasize here, the underlying themes in these arguments are remarkably similar even though the contexts are radically different. 1.
The Gaussian primes contain arbitrarily shaped constellations
 J. dAnalyse Mathematique
"... Abstract. We show that the Gaussian primes P[i] ⊆ Z[i] contain infinitely constellations of any prescribed shape and orientation. More precisely, given any distinct Gaussian integers v0,..., vk−1, we show that there are infinitely many sets {a+rv0,..., a+rvk−1}, with a ∈ Z[i] and r ∈ Z\{0}, all of ..."
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Cited by 18 (10 self)
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Abstract. We show that the Gaussian primes P[i] ⊆ Z[i] contain infinitely constellations of any prescribed shape and orientation. More precisely, given any distinct Gaussian integers v0,..., vk−1, we show that there are infinitely many sets {a+rv0,..., a+rvk−1}, with a ∈ Z[i] and r ∈ Z\{0}, all of whose elements are Gaussian primes. The proof is modeled on that in [9] and requires three ingredients. The first is a hypergraph removal lemma of Gowers and RödlSkokan, or more precisely a slight strengthening of this lemma which can be found in [22]; this hypergraph removal lemma can be thought of as a generalization of the SzemerédiFurstenbergKatznelson theorem concerning multidimensional arithmetic progressions. The second ingredient is the transference argument from [9], which allows one to extend this hypergraph removal lemma to a relative version, weighted by a pseudorandom measure. The third ingredient is a GoldstonYıldırım type analysis for the Gaussian integers, similar to that in [9], which yields a pseudorandom measure which is concentrated on Gaussian “almost primes”. 1.
The GreenTao Theorem on arithmetic progressions in the primes: an ergodic point of view
, 2005
"... A longstanding and almost folkloric conjecture is that the primes contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. Until recently, the only progress on this conjecture was due to van der Corput, who showed in 1939 that there are infinitely many triples of primes in arithmetic progression. In an a ..."
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Cited by 18 (2 self)
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A longstanding and almost folkloric conjecture is that the primes contain arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. Until recently, the only progress on this conjecture was due to van der Corput, who showed in 1939 that there are infinitely many triples of primes in arithmetic progression. In an amazing fusion of methods from analytic number theory and ergodic theory, Ben Green and Terence Tao showed that for any positive integer k, there exist infinitely many arithmetic progressions of length k consisting only of prime numbers. This is an introduction to some of the ideas in the proof, concentrating on the connections to ergodic theory.
and T.Tao. The distribution of polynomials over finite fields, with applications to the Gowers norms. submitted
, 2007
"... Abstract. In this paper we investigate the uniform distribution properties of polynomials in many variables and bounded degree over a fixed finite field F of prime order. Our main result is that a polynomial P: F n → F is poorlydistributed only if P is determined by the values of a few polynomials ..."
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Cited by 17 (2 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we investigate the uniform distribution properties of polynomials in many variables and bounded degree over a fixed finite field F of prime order. Our main result is that a polynomial P: F n → F is poorlydistributed only if P is determined by the values of a few polynomials of lower degree, in which case we say that P has small rank. We give several applications of this result, paying particular attention to consequences for the theory of the socalled Gowers norms. We establish an inverse result for the Gowers U d+1norm of functions of the form f(x) = eF(P(x)), where P: F n → F is a polynomial of degree less than F, showing that this norm can only be large if f correlates with eF(Q(x)) for some polynomial Q: F n → F of degree at most d. The requirement deg(P) < F  cannot be dropped entirely. Indeed, we show the above claim fails in characteristic 2 when d = 3 and deg(P) = 4, showing that the quartic symmetric polynomial S4 in F n 2 has large Gowers U 4norm but does not correlate strongly with any cubic polynomial. This shows that the theory of Gowers norms in low characteristic is not as simple as previously supposed. This counterexample has also been discovered independently by Lovett, Meshulam, and Samorodnitsky [15]. We conclude with sundry other applications of our main result, including a recurrence result and a certain type of nullstellensatz. 1.
Regular partitions of hypergraphs: Regularity Lemmas
 COMBIN. PROBAB. COMPUT
, 2007
"... Szemerédi’s regularity lemma for graphs has proved to be a powerful tool with many subsequent applications. The objective of this paper is to extend the techniques developed by Nagle, Skokan, and authors and obtain a stronger and more “user friendly” regularity lemma for hypergraphs. ..."
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Cited by 14 (1 self)
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Szemerédi’s regularity lemma for graphs has proved to be a powerful tool with many subsequent applications. The objective of this paper is to extend the techniques developed by Nagle, Skokan, and authors and obtain a stronger and more “user friendly” regularity lemma for hypergraphs.
Restriction theory of Selberg’s sieve, with applications, to appear, Journal de Theorie de Nombres de Bordeaux
"... Abstract. The Selberg sieve provides majorants for certain arithmetic sequences, such as the primes and the twin primes. We prove an L 2 –L p restriction theorem for majorants of this type. An immediate application is to the estimation of exponential sums over prime ktuples. Let a1,..., ak and b1,. ..."
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Cited by 14 (7 self)
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Abstract. The Selberg sieve provides majorants for certain arithmetic sequences, such as the primes and the twin primes. We prove an L 2 –L p restriction theorem for majorants of this type. An immediate application is to the estimation of exponential sums over prime ktuples. Let a1,..., ak and b1,...,bk be positive integers. Write h(θ): = ∑ n∈X e(nθ), where X is the set of all n � N such that the numbers a1n + b1,..., akn + bk are all prime. We obtain upper bounds for ‖h ‖ L p (T), p> 2, which are (conditionally on the prime tuple conjecture) of the correct order of magnitude. As a second application we deduce from Chen’s theorem, Roth’s theorem, and a transference principle that there are infinitely many arithmetic progressions p1 < p2 < p3 of primes, such that pi + 2 is either a prime or a product of two primes for each i = 1, 2, 3.