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76
A New Approach to Dynamic All Pairs Shortest Paths
, 2002
"... We study novel combinatorial properties of graphs that allow us to devise a completely new approach to dynamic all pairs shortest paths problems. Our approach yields a fully dynamic algorithm for general directed graphs with nonnegative realvalued edge weights that supports any sequence of operatio ..."
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Cited by 87 (7 self)
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We study novel combinatorial properties of graphs that allow us to devise a completely new approach to dynamic all pairs shortest paths problems. Our approach yields a fully dynamic algorithm for general directed graphs with nonnegative realvalued edge weights that supports any sequence of operations in e O(n amortized time per update and unit worstcase time per distance query, where n is the number of vertices. We can also report shortest paths in optimal worstcase time. These bounds improve substantially over previous results and solve a longstanding open problem. Our algorithm is deterministic and uses simple data structures.
Fully Dynamic Algorithms for Maintaining AllPairs Shortest Paths and Transitive Closure in Digraphs
 IN PROC. 40TH IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (FOCS’99
, 1999
"... This paper presents the first fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining allpairs shortest paths in digraphs with positive integer weights less than b. For approximate shortest paths with an error factor of (2 + ffl), for any positive constant ffl, the amortized update time is O(n 2 log 2 n= log ..."
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Cited by 75 (0 self)
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This paper presents the first fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining allpairs shortest paths in digraphs with positive integer weights less than b. For approximate shortest paths with an error factor of (2 + ffl), for any positive constant ffl, the amortized update time is O(n 2 log 2 n= log log n); for an error factor of (1 + ffl) the amortized update time is O(n 2 log 3 (bn)=ffl 2 ). For exact shortest paths the amortized update time is O(n 2:5 p b log n). Query time for exact and approximate shortest distances is O(1); exact and approximate paths can be generated in time proportional to their lengths. Also presented is a fully dynamic transitive closure algorithm with update time O(n 2 log n) and query time O(1). The previously known fully dynamic transitive closure algorithm with fast query time has onesided error and update time O(n 2:28 ). The algorithms use simple data structures, and are deterministic.
DynFO: A Parallel, Dynamic Complexity Class
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1994
"... Traditionally, computational complexity has considered only static problems. Classical Complexity Classes such as NC, P, and NP are defined in terms of the complexity of checking  upon presentation of an entire input  whether the input satisfies a certain property. For many applications of compu ..."
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Cited by 56 (4 self)
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Traditionally, computational complexity has considered only static problems. Classical Complexity Classes such as NC, P, and NP are defined in terms of the complexity of checking  upon presentation of an entire input  whether the input satisfies a certain property. For many applications of computers it is more appropriate to model the process as a dynamic one. There is a fairly large object being worked on over a period of time. The object is repeatedly modified by users and computations are performed. We develop a theory of Dynamic Complexity. We study the new complexity class, Dynamic FirstOrder Logic (DynFO). This is the set of properties that can be maintained and queried in firstorder logic, i.e. relational calculus, on a relational database. We show that many interesting properties are in DynFO including multiplication, graph connectivity, bipartiteness, and the computation of minimum spanning trees. Note that none of these problems is in static FO, and this f...
Lifelong Planning A*
, 2005
"... Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning p ..."
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Cited by 56 (3 self)
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Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning problem from scratch. In this article, we develop Lifelong Planning A * (LPA*), an incremental version of A * that combines ideas from the artificial intelligence and the algorithms literature. It repeatedly finds shortest paths from a given start vertex to a given goal vertex while the edge costs of a graph change or vertices are added or deleted. Its first search is the same as that of a version of A * that breaks ties in favor of vertices with smaller gvalues but many of the subsequent searches are potentially faster because it reuses those parts of the previous search tree that are identical to the new one. We present analytical results that demonstrate its similarity to A * and experimental results that demonstrate its potential advantage in two different domains if the pathplanning problems change only slightly and the changes are close to the goal.
Fast replanning for navigation in unknown terrain
 Transactions on Robotics
"... Abstract—Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Fo ..."
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Cited by 52 (10 self)
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Abstract—Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Focussed Dynamic A (D) is a heuristic search method that repeatedly determines a shortest path from the current robot coordinates to the goal coordinates while the robot moves along the path. It is able to replan faster than planning from scratch since it modifies its previous search results locally. Consequently, it has been extensively used in mobile robotics. In this article, we introduce an alternative to D that determines the same paths and thus moves the robot in the same way but is algorithmically different. D Lite is simple, can be rigorously analyzed, extendible in multiple ways, and is at least as efficient as D. We believe that our results will make Dlike replanning methods even more popular and enable robotics researchers to adapt them to additional applications. Index Terms—A, D (Dynamic A), navigation in unknown terrain, planning with the freespace assumption, replanning, search, sensorbased path planning. I.
Fully Dynamic All Pairs Shortest Paths with Real Edge Weights
 In IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2001
"... We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for maintaining all pairs shortest paths in directed graphs with realvalued edge weights. Given a dynamic directed graph G such that each edge can assume at most S di#erent real values, we show how to support updates in O(n amortized time and que ..."
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Cited by 38 (9 self)
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We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for maintaining all pairs shortest paths in directed graphs with realvalued edge weights. Given a dynamic directed graph G such that each edge can assume at most S di#erent real values, we show how to support updates in O(n amortized time and queries in optimal worstcase time. No previous fully dynamic algorithm was known for this problem. In the special case where edge weights can only be increased, we give a randomized algorithm with onesided error which supports updates faster in O(S We also show how to obtain query/update tradeo#s for this problem, by introducing two new families of algorithms. Algorithms in the first family achieve an update bound of O(n/k), and improve over the best known update bounds for k in the . Algorithms in the second family achieve an update bound of ), and are competitive with the best known update bounds (first family included) for k in the range (n/S) # Work partially supported by the IST Programme of the EU under contract n. IST199914. 186 (ALCOMFT) and by CNR, the Italian National Research Council, under contract n. 01.00690.CT26. Portions of this work have been presented at the 42nd Annual Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS 2001) [8] and at the 29th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP'02) [9].
Incremental graph pattern matching
 In SIGMOD
, 2011
"... Graph pattern matching has become a routine process in emerging applications such as social networks. In practice a data graph is typically large, and is frequently updated with small changes. It is often prohibitively expensive to recompute matches from scratch via batch algorithms when the graph ..."
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Cited by 22 (7 self)
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Graph pattern matching has become a routine process in emerging applications such as social networks. In practice a data graph is typically large, and is frequently updated with small changes. It is often prohibitively expensive to recompute matches from scratch via batch algorithms when the graph is updated. With this comes the need for incremental algorithms that compute changes to the matches in response to updates, to minimize unnecessary recomputation. This paper investigates incremental algorithms for graph pattern matching defined in terms of graph simulation, bounded simulation and subgraph isomorphism. (1) For simulation, we provide incremental algorithms for unit updates and certain graph patterns. These algorithms are optimal: in linear time in the size of the changes in the input and output, which characterizes the cost that is inherent to the problem itself. For general patterns we show that the incremental matching problem is unbounded, i.e., its cost is not determined by the size of the changes alone. (2) For bounded simulation, we show that the problem is unbounded even for unit updates and path patterns. (3) For subgraph isomorphism, we show that the problem is intractable and unbounded for unit updates and path patterns. (4) For multiple updates, we develop an incremental algorithm for each of simulation, bounded simulation and subgraph isomorphism. We experimentally verify that these incremental algorithms significantly outperform their batch counterparts in response to small changes, using reallife data and synthetic data. Categories and Subject Descriptors: F.2 [Analysis of algorithms and problem complexity]: Nonnumerical algorithms and problems[pattern matching]
A Case Study in RealTime Parallel Computation: Correcting Algorithms
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 2001
"... A correcting algorithm is one that receives an endless stream of corrections to its initial input data and terminates when all the corrections received have been taken into account. We give a characterization of correcting algorithms based on the theory of dataaccumulating algorithms. In particular ..."
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Cited by 21 (19 self)
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A correcting algorithm is one that receives an endless stream of corrections to its initial input data and terminates when all the corrections received have been taken into account. We give a characterization of correcting algorithms based on the theory of dataaccumulating algorithms. In particular, it is shown that any correcting algorithm exhibits superunitary behavior in a parallel computation setting if and only if the static counterpart of that correcting algorithm manifests a strictly superunitary speedup. Since both classes of correcting and dataaccumulating algorithms are included in the more general class of realtime algorithms, we show in fact that many problems from this class manifest superunitary behavior. Moreover, we give an example of a realtime parallel computation that pertains to neither of the two classes studied (namely, correcting and dataaccumulating algorithms), but still manifests superunitary behavior. Because of the aforementioned results, the usual measures of performance for parallel algorithms (that is, speedup and efficiency) lose much of their ability to convey effectively the nature of the phenomenon taking place in the realtime case. We propose therefore a more expressive measure that captures all the relevant parameters of the computation. Our proposal is made in terms of a graphical representation. We state as an open problem the investigation of such a measure, including nding an analytical form for it.
Online Topological Ordering
, 2005
"... It is shown that the problem of maintaining the topological order of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph while inserting m edges can be solved in O(min{m 3/2 log n, m 3/2 + n 2 log n}) time, an improvement over the best known result of O(mn). In addition, we analyze the complexity of the same alg ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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It is shown that the problem of maintaining the topological order of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph while inserting m edges can be solved in O(min{m 3/2 log n, m 3/2 + n 2 log n}) time, an improvement over the best known result of O(mn). In addition, we analyze the complexity of the same algorithm with respect to the treewidth k of the underlying undirected graph. We show that the algorithm runs in time O(mk log 2 n) for general k and that it can be implemented to run in O(n log n) time on trees, which is optimal. If the input contains cycles, the algorithm detects this.