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131
Internet traffic engineering by optimizing OSPF weights
 in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM
, 2000
"... Abstract—Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most commonly used intradomain internet routing protocol. Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes where several outgoing links are on shortest paths to the destination. The weights of the links, and thereby the shortest pa ..."
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Cited by 385 (13 self)
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Abstract—Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most commonly used intradomain internet routing protocol. Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes where several outgoing links are on shortest paths to the destination. The weights of the links, and thereby the shortest path routes, can be changed by the network operator. The weights could be set proportional to their physical distances, but often the main goal is to avoid congestion, i.e. overloading of links, and the standard heuristic recommended by Cisco is to make the weight of a link inversely proportional to its capacity. Our starting point was a proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone with demands projected from previous measurements. The desire was to optimize the weight setting based on the projected demands. We showed that optimizing the weight settings for a given set of demands is NPhard, so we resorted to a local search heuristic. Surprisingly it turned out that for the proposed AT&T WorldNet backbone, we found weight settings that performed
The Focussed D* Algorithm for RealTime Replanning
, 1995
"... Finding the lowestcost path through a graph is central to many problems, including route planning for a mobile robot. If arc costs change during the traverse, then the remainder of the path may need to be replanned. This is the case for a sensorequipped mobile robot with imperfect information ..."
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Cited by 263 (29 self)
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Finding the lowestcost path through a graph is central to many problems, including route planning for a mobile robot. If arc costs change during the traverse, then the remainder of the path may need to be replanned. This is the case for a sensorequipped mobile robot with imperfect information about its environment. As the robot acquires additional information via its sensors, it can revise its plan to reduce the total cost of the traverse. If the prior information is grossly incomplete, the robot may discover useful information in every piece of sensor data. During replanning, the robot must either wait for the new path to be computed or move in the wrong direction; therefore, rapid replanning is essential. The D* algorithm (Dynamic A*) plans optimal traverses in realtime by incrementally repairing paths to the robot's state as new information is discovered. This paper describes an extension to D* that focusses the repairs to significantly reduce the total time re...
ABCD: Eliminating Array Bounds Checks on Demand
, 2000
"... To guarantee execution, Java and other strongly typed languages require bounds checking of array accesses. Because bounds checks may raise exceptions, they block code motion of instructions with side effects, thus preventing many useful code optimizations, such as partial redundancy elimination or i ..."
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Cited by 144 (7 self)
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To guarantee execution, Java and other strongly typed languages require bounds checking of array accesses. Because bounds checks may raise exceptions, they block code motion of instructions with side effects, thus preventing many useful code optimizations, such as partial redundancy elimination or instruction scheduling of memory operations. Furthermore, because it is not expressible at level, the elimination of bounds checks can only be performed at run time, after the program is loaded. Using existing powerful boundscheck optimizers at run time is not feasible, however, because they are too heavyweight for the dynamic compilation setting. ABCD is a lightweight algorithm for elimination of &ray Checks on Demand. Its design emphasizes simplicity and efficiency. In essence, ABCD works by adding a few edges to the SSA value graph and performing a simple traversal of the graph. Despite its simplicity, ABCD is surprisingly powerful. On our benchmarks, ABCD removes on average 45 % of dynamic bound check instructions, sometimes achieving nearideal optimization. The efficiency of ABCD stems from two factors. First, ABCD works on a representation. As a result, it requires on average fewer than 10 simple analysis steps per bounds check. Second, ABCD is demanddriven. It can be applied to a set of frequently executed (hot) bounds checks, which makes it suitable for the dynamiccompilation setting, in which compiletime cost is constrained but hot statements are known.
A genetic algorithm for the weight setting problem in OSPF routing
 Journal of Combinatorial Optimization
, 2002
"... Abstract. With the growth of the Internet, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) try to meet the increasing traffic demand with new technology and improved utilization of existing resources. Routing of data packets can affect network utilization. Packets are sent along network paths from source to desti ..."
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Cited by 103 (28 self)
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Abstract. With the growth of the Internet, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) try to meet the increasing traffic demand with new technology and improved utilization of existing resources. Routing of data packets can affect network utilization. Packets are sent along network paths from source to destination following a protocol. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most commonly used intradomain Internet routing protocol (IRP). Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes with several outgoing links on a shortest path to the destination IP address. Link weights are assigned by the network operator. A path length is the sum of the weights of the links in the path. The OSPF weight setting (OSPFWS) problem seeks a set of weights that optimizes network performance. We study the problem of optimizing OSPF weights, given a set of projected demands, with the objective of minimizing network congestion. The weight assignment problem is NPhard. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the OSPFWS problem. We compare our results with the best known and commonly used heuristics for OSPF weight setting, as well as with a lower bound of the optimal multicommodity flow routing, which is a linear programming relaxation of the OSPFWS problem. Computational experiments are made on the AT&T Worldnet backbone with projected demands, and on twelve instances of synthetic networks. 1.
Increasing internet capacity using local search
 Computational Optimization and Applications
, 2004
"... but often the main goal is to avoid congestion, i.e. overloading of links, and the standard heuristic recommended by Cisco (a major router vendor) is to make the weight of a link inversely proportional to its capacity. We study the problem of optimizing OSPF weights for a given a set of projected de ..."
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Cited by 89 (9 self)
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but often the main goal is to avoid congestion, i.e. overloading of links, and the standard heuristic recommended by Cisco (a major router vendor) is to make the weight of a link inversely proportional to its capacity. We study the problem of optimizing OSPF weights for a given a set of projected demands so as to avoid congestion. We show this problem is NPhard and propose a local search heuristic to solve it. We also provide worstcase results about the performance of OSPF routing vs. an optimal multicommodity flow routing. Our numerical experiments compare the results obtained with our local search heuristic to the optimal multicommodity flow routing, as well as simple and commonly used heuristics for setting the weights. Experiments were done with a proposed nextgeneration AT&T WorldNet backbone as well as synthetic internetworks.
Improved fast replanning for robot navigation in unknown terrain
 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, 2002
"... Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Focussed Dy ..."
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Cited by 88 (10 self)
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Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Focussed Dynamic A * is a heuristic search method that repeatedly determines a shortest path from the current robot coordinates to the goal coordinates while the robot moves along the path. It is able to replan one to two orders of magnitudes faster than planning from scratch since it modifies previous search results locally. Consequently, it has been extensively used in mobile robotics. In this article, we introduce an alternative to Focussed Dynamic A * that implements the same navigation strategy but is algorithmically different. Focussed Dynamic A * Lite is simple, easy to understand, easy to analyze and easy to extend, yet is more efficient than Focussed Dynamic A*. We believe that our results will make D*like replanning methods even more popular and enable robotics researchers to adapt them to additional applications. 1
A New Approach to Dynamic All Pairs Shortest Paths
, 2002
"... We study novel combinatorial properties of graphs that allow us to devise a completely new approach to dynamic all pairs shortest paths problems. Our approach yields a fully dynamic algorithm for general directed graphs with nonnegative realvalued edge weights that supports any sequence of operatio ..."
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Cited by 81 (8 self)
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We study novel combinatorial properties of graphs that allow us to devise a completely new approach to dynamic all pairs shortest paths problems. Our approach yields a fully dynamic algorithm for general directed graphs with nonnegative realvalued edge weights that supports any sequence of operations in e O(n amortized time per update and unit worstcase time per distance query, where n is the number of vertices. We can also report shortest paths in optimal worstcase time. These bounds improve substantially over previous results and solve a longstanding open problem. Our algorithm is deterministic and uses simple data structures.
Fully Dynamic Algorithms for Maintaining AllPairs Shortest Paths and Transitive Closure in Digraphs
 IN PROC. 40TH IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (FOCS’99
, 1999
"... This paper presents the first fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining allpairs shortest paths in digraphs with positive integer weights less than b. For approximate shortest paths with an error factor of (2 + ffl), for any positive constant ffl, the amortized update time is O(n 2 log 2 n= log ..."
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Cited by 72 (0 self)
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This paper presents the first fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining allpairs shortest paths in digraphs with positive integer weights less than b. For approximate shortest paths with an error factor of (2 + ffl), for any positive constant ffl, the amortized update time is O(n 2 log 2 n= log log n); for an error factor of (1 + ffl) the amortized update time is O(n 2 log 3 (bn)=ffl 2 ). For exact shortest paths the amortized update time is O(n 2:5 p b log n). Query time for exact and approximate shortest distances is O(1); exact and approximate paths can be generated in time proportional to their lengths. Also presented is a fully dynamic transitive closure algorithm with update time O(n 2 log n) and query time O(1). The previously known fully dynamic transitive closure algorithm with fast query time has onesided error and update time O(n 2:28 ). The algorithms use simple data structures, and are deterministic.
New Dynamic Algorithms for Shortest Path Tree Computation
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 2000
"... The OSPF and ISIS routing protocols widely used in today's Internet compute a shortest path tree (SPT) from each router to other routers in a routing area. Many existing commercial routers recompute an SPT from scratch following changes in the link states of the network. Such recomputation of ..."
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Cited by 69 (1 self)
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The OSPF and ISIS routing protocols widely used in today's Internet compute a shortest path tree (SPT) from each router to other routers in a routing area. Many existing commercial routers recompute an SPT from scratch following changes in the link states of the network. Such recomputation of an entire SPT is inecient and may consume a considerable amount of CPU time. Moreover, as there may coexist multiple SPTs in a network with a set of given link states, recomputation from scratch causes frequent unnecessary changes in the topology of an existing SPT and may lead to routing instability. In this paper, we present new dynamic SPT algorithms that make use of the structure of the previously computed SPT. Besides efficiency, our algorithm design objective is to achieve routing stability by making minimum changes to the topology of an existing SPT (while maintaining shortest path property) when some link states in the network have changed. We establish an algorithmic framework that allows ...
Lifelong Planning A*
, 2005
"... Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning p ..."
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Cited by 49 (3 self)
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Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning problem from scratch. In this article, we develop Lifelong Planning A * (LPA*), an incremental version of A * that combines ideas from the artificial intelligence and the algorithms literature. It repeatedly finds shortest paths from a given start vertex to a given goal vertex while the edge costs of a graph change or vertices are added or deleted. Its first search is the same as that of a version of A * that breaks ties in favor of vertices with smaller gvalues but many of the subsequent searches are potentially faster because it reuses those parts of the previous search tree that are identical to the new one. We present analytical results that demonstrate its similarity to A * and experimental results that demonstrate its potential advantage in two different domains if the pathplanning problems change only slightly and the changes are close to the goal.