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NonLinear Approximation of Reflectance Functions
, 1997
"... We introduce a new class of primitive functions with nonlinear parameters for representing light reflectance functions. The functions are reciprocal, energyconserving and expressive. They can capture important phenomena such as offspecular reflection, increasing reflectance and retroreflection. ..."
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Cited by 218 (10 self)
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We introduce a new class of primitive functions with nonlinear parameters for representing light reflectance functions. The functions are reciprocal, energyconserving and expressive. They can capture important phenomena such as offspecular reflection, increasing reflectance and retroreflection. We demonstrate this by fitting sums of primitive functions to a physicallybased model and to actual measurements. The resulting representation is simple, compact and uniform. It can be applied efficiently in analytical and Monte Carlo computations. CR Categories: I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: ThreeDimensional Graphics and Realism; I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation Keywords: Reflectance function, BRDF representation 1 INTRODUCTION The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a material describes how light is scattered at its surface. It determines the appearance of objects in a scene, through direct illumination and global interreflection effects. Local r...
Inverse Global Illumination: Recovering Reflectance Models of Real Scenes from Photographs
, 1999
"... In this paper we present a method for recovering the reflectance properties of all surfaces in a real scene from a sparse set of photographs, taking into account both direct and indirect illumination. The result is a lightingindependent model of the scene's geometry and reflectance properties, whic ..."
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Cited by 207 (9 self)
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In this paper we present a method for recovering the reflectance properties of all surfaces in a real scene from a sparse set of photographs, taking into account both direct and indirect illumination. The result is a lightingindependent model of the scene's geometry and reflectance properties, which can be rendered with arbitrary modifications to structure and lighting via traditional rendering methods. Our technique models reflectance with a lowparameter reflectance model, and allows diffuse albedo to vary arbitrarily over surfaces while assuming that nondiffuse characteristics remain constant across particular regions. The method's input is a geometric model of the scene and a set of calibrated high dynamic range photographs taken with known direct illumination. The algorithm hierarchically partitions the scene into a polygonal mesh, and uses imagebased rendering to construct estimates of both the radiance and irradiance of each patch from the photographic data. The algorithm computes the expected location of specular highlights, and then analyzes the highlight areas in the images by running a novel iterative optimization procedure to recover the diffuse and specular reflectance parameters for each region. Lastly, these parameters are used in constructing highresolution diffuse albedo maps for each surface.
Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering
, 1993
"... The reflection of light from most materials consists of two major terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles by considering a rough surface consisting of perfect reflectors, or microfacets. Diffuse reflection is generally considered to result from ..."
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Cited by 185 (3 self)
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The reflection of light from most materials consists of two major terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles by considering a rough surface consisting of perfect reflectors, or microfacets. Diffuse reflection is generally considered to result from multiple scattering either from a rough surface or from within a layer near the surface. Accounting for diffuse reflection by Lambert's Cosine Law, as is universally done in computer graphics, is not a physical theory based on first principles. This paper presents
A DataDriven Reflectance Model
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON GRAPHICS
, 2003
"... We present a generative model for isotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) based on acquired reflectance data. Instead of using analytical reflectance models, we represent each BRDF as a dense set of measurements. This allows us to interpolate and extrapolate in the space o ..."
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Cited by 143 (6 self)
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We present a generative model for isotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) based on acquired reflectance data. Instead of using analytical reflectance models, we represent each BRDF as a dense set of measurements. This allows us to interpolate and extrapolate in the space of acquired BRDFs to create new BRDFs. We treat each acquired BRDF as a single highdimensional vector taken from a space of all possible BRDFs. We apply both linear (subspace) and nonlinear (manifold) dimensionality reduction tools in an effort to discover a lowerdimensional representation that characterizes our measurements. We let users define perceptually meaningful parametrization directions to navigate in the reduceddimension BRDF space. On the lowdimensional manifold, movement along these directions produces novel but valid BRDFs.
ImageBased BRDF Measurement Including Human Skin
"... We present a new imagebased process for measuring the bidirectional reflectance of homogeneous surfaces rapidly, completely, and accurately. For simple sample shapes (spheres and cylinders) the method requires only a digital camera and a stable light source. Adding a 3D scanner allows a wide cla ..."
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Cited by 115 (2 self)
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We present a new imagebased process for measuring the bidirectional reflectance of homogeneous surfaces rapidly, completely, and accurately. For simple sample shapes (spheres and cylinders) the method requires only a digital camera and a stable light source. Adding a 3D scanner allows a wide class of curved nearconvex objects to be measured. With measurements for a variety of materials from paints to human skin, we demonstrate the new method's ability to achieve high resolution and accuracy over a large domain of illumination and reflection directions. We verify our measurements by tests of internal consistency and by comparison against measurements made using a gonioreflectometer.
Interactive Rendering with Arbitrary BRDFs using Separable Approximations
 IN EUROGRAPHICS RENDERING WORKSHOP
, 1999
"... A separable decomposition of bidirectional reflectance distributions (BRDFs) is used to implement arbitrary reflectances from point sources on existing graphics hardware. Twodimensional texture mapping and compositing operations are used to reconstruct samples of the BRDF at every pixel at interact ..."
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Cited by 114 (20 self)
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A separable decomposition of bidirectional reflectance distributions (BRDFs) is used to implement arbitrary reflectances from point sources on existing graphics hardware. Twodimensional texture mapping and compositing operations are used to reconstruct samples of the BRDF at every pixel at interactive rates. A change of variables, the GramSchmidt halfangle/difference vector parameterization, improves separability. Two decomposition algorithms are also presented. The singular value decomposition (SVD) minimizes RMS error. The normalized decomposition is fast and simple, using no more space than what is required for the final representation.
Reflection Space Image Based Rendering
, 1999
"... High quality, physically accurate rendering at interactive rates has widespread application, but is a daunting task. We attempt to bridge the gap between highquality offline and interactive rendering by using existing environment mapping hardware in combination with a novel Image Based Rendering (I ..."
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Cited by 81 (1 self)
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High quality, physically accurate rendering at interactive rates has widespread application, but is a daunting task. We attempt to bridge the gap between highquality offline and interactive rendering by using existing environment mapping hardware in combination with a novel Image Based Rendering (IBR) algorithm. The primary contribution lies in performing IBR in reflection space. This method can be applied to ordinary environment maps, but for more physically accurate rendering, we apply reflection space IBR to radiance environment maps. A radiance environment map preintegrates a Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) with a lighting environment. Using the reflectionspace IBR algorithm on radiance environment maps allows interactive rendering of arbitrary objects with a large class of complex BRDFs in arbitrary lighting environments. The ultimate simplicity of the final algorithm suggests that it will be widely and immediately valuable given the ready availability of hardware assisted environment mapping.
Generalization of Lambert's Reflectance Model
 In SIGGRAPH 94
, 1994
"... Lambert's model for body reflection is widely used in computer graphics. It is used extensively by rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing. For several realworld objects, however, Lambert's model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation to the body reflectance. While the bright ..."
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Cited by 77 (2 self)
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Lambert's model for body reflection is widely used in computer graphics. It is used extensively by rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing. For several realworld objects, however, Lambert's model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation to the body reflectance. While the brightness of a Lambertian surface is independent of viewing direction, that of a rough surface increases as the viewing direction approaches the light source direction. In this paper, a comprehensive model is developed that predicts body reflectance from rough surfaces. The surface is modeled as a collection of Lambertian facets. It is shown that such a surface is inherently nonLambertian due to the foreshortening of the surface facets. Further, the model accounts for complex geometric and radiometric phenomena such as masking, shadowing, and interreflections between facets. Several experiments have been conducted on samples of rough diffuse surfaces, such as, plaster, sand, clay, and cloth. All...
A Microfacetbased BRDF Generator
, 2000
"... A method is presented that takes as an input a 2D microfacet orientation distribution and produces a 4D bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This method differs from previous microfacetbased BRDF models in that it uses a simple shadowing term which allows it to handle very genera ..."
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Cited by 77 (3 self)
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A method is presented that takes as an input a 2D microfacet orientation distribution and produces a 4D bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This method differs from previous microfacetbased BRDF models in that it uses a simple shadowing term which allows it to handle very general microfacet distributions while maintaining reciprocity and energy conservation. The generator is shown on a variety of material types.
Toward a PsychophysicallyBased Light Reflection Model for Image Synthesis
 Proc. SIGGRAPH
, 2000
"... image synthesis based on experimental studies of surface gloss perception. To develop the model, we've conducted two experiments that explore the relationships between the physical parameters used to describe the reflectance properties of glossy surfaces and the perceptual dimensions of glossy appea ..."
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Cited by 76 (15 self)
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image synthesis based on experimental studies of surface gloss perception. To develop the model, we've conducted two experiments that explore the relationships between the physical parameters used to describe the reflectance properties of glossy surfaces and the perceptual dimensions of glossy appearance. In the first experiment we use multidimensional scaling techniques to reveal the dimensionality of gloss perception for simulated painted surfaces. In the second experiment we use magnitude estimation methods to place metrics on these dimensions that relate changes in apparent gloss to variations in surface reflectance properties. We use the results of these experiments to rewrite the parameters of a physicallybased light reflection model in perceptual terms. The result is a new psychophysicallybased light reflection model where the dimensions of the model are perceptually meaningful, and variations along the dimensions are perceptually uniform. We demonstrate that the model can facilitate describing surface gloss in graphics rendering applications. This work represents a new methodology for developing light reflection models for image synthesis.