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22
A genetic algorithm for the weight setting problem in OSPF routing
 Journal of Combinatorial Optimization
, 2002
"... Abstract. With the growth of the Internet, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) try to meet the increasing traffic demand with new technology and improved utilization of existing resources. Routing of data packets can affect network utilization. Packets are sent along network paths from source to desti ..."
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Cited by 77 (22 self)
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Abstract. With the growth of the Internet, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) try to meet the increasing traffic demand with new technology and improved utilization of existing resources. Routing of data packets can affect network utilization. Packets are sent along network paths from source to destination following a protocol. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most commonly used intradomain Internet routing protocol (IRP). Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes with several outgoing links on a shortest path to the destination IP address. Link weights are assigned by the network operator. A path length is the sum of the weights of the links in the path. The OSPF weight setting (OSPFWS) problem seeks a set of weights that optimizes network performance. We study the problem of optimizing OSPF weights, given a set of projected demands, with the objective of minimizing network congestion. The weight assignment problem is NPhard. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the OSPFWS problem. We compare our results with the best known and commonly used heuristics for OSPF weight setting, as well as with a lower bound of the optimal multicommodity flow routing, which is a linear programming relaxation of the OSPFWS problem. Computational experiments are made on the AT&T Worldnet backbone with projected demands, and on twelve instances of synthetic networks. 1.
Dynamic Graph Algorithms
, 1999
"... Introduction In many applications of graph algorithms, including communication networks, graphics, assembly planning, and VLSI design, graphs are subject to discrete changes, such as additions or deletions of edges or vertices. In the last decade there has been a growing interest in such dynamicall ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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Introduction In many applications of graph algorithms, including communication networks, graphics, assembly planning, and VLSI design, graphs are subject to discrete changes, such as additions or deletions of edges or vertices. In the last decade there has been a growing interest in such dynamically changing graphs, and a whole body of algorithms and data structures for dynamic graphs has been discovered. This chapter is intended as an overview of this field. In a typical dynamic graph problem one would like to answer queries on graphs that are undergoing a sequence of updates, for instance, insertions and deletions of edges and vertices. The goal of a dynamic graph algorithm is to update efficiently the solution of a problem after dynamic changes, rather than having to recompute it from scratch each time. Given their powerful versatility, it is not surprising that dynamic algorithms and dynamic data structures are often more difficult to design and analyze than their static c
New Dynamic Algorithms for Shortest Path Tree Computation
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 2000
"... The OSPF and ISIS routing protocols widely used in today's Internet compute a shortest path tree (SPT) from each router to other routers in a routing area. Many existing commercial routers recompute an SPT from scratch following changes in the link states of the network. Such recomputation of an en ..."
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Cited by 54 (1 self)
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The OSPF and ISIS routing protocols widely used in today's Internet compute a shortest path tree (SPT) from each router to other routers in a routing area. Many existing commercial routers recompute an SPT from scratch following changes in the link states of the network. Such recomputation of an entire SPT is inecient and may consume a considerable amount of CPU time. Moreover, as there may coexist multiple SPTs in a network with a set of given link states, recomputation from scratch causes frequent unnecessary changes in the topology of an existing SPT and may lead to routing instability. In this paper, we present new dynamic SPT algorithms that make use of the structure of the previously computed SPT. Besides efficiency, our algorithm design objective is to achieve routing stability by making minimum changes to the topology of an existing SPT (while maintaining shortest path property) when some link states in the network have changed. We establish an algorithmic framework that allows ...
Lifelong Planning A*
, 2005
"... Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning p ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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Heuristic search methods promise to find shortest paths for pathplanning problems faster than uninformed search methods. Incremental search methods, on the other hand, promise to find shortest paths for series of similar pathplanning problems faster than is possible by solving each pathplanning problem from scratch. In this article, we develop Lifelong Planning A * (LPA*), an incremental version of A * that combines ideas from the artificial intelligence and the algorithms literature. It repeatedly finds shortest paths from a given start vertex to a given goal vertex while the edge costs of a graph change or vertices are added or deleted. Its first search is the same as that of a version of A * that breaks ties in favor of vertices with smaller gvalues but many of the subsequent searches are potentially faster because it reuses those parts of the previous search tree that are identical to the new one. We present analytical results that demonstrate its similarity to A * and experimental results that demonstrate its potential advantage in two different domains if the pathplanning problems change only slightly and the changes are close to the goal.
New Dynamic SPT Algorithm based on a BallandString Model
, 1999
"... A key functionality in today's widely used interior gateway routing protocols such as OSPF and ISIS involves the computation of a shortest path tree (SPT). In many existing commercial routers, the computation of an SPT is done from scratch following changes in the link states of the network. As the ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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A key functionality in today's widely used interior gateway routing protocols such as OSPF and ISIS involves the computation of a shortest path tree (SPT). In many existing commercial routers, the computation of an SPT is done from scratch following changes in the link states of the network. As there may coexist multiple SPTs in a network with a set of given link states, such recomputation of an entire SPT not only is inefficient but also causes frequent unnecessary changes in the topology of an existing SPT and creates routing instability. This paper presents a new dynamic SPT algorithm that makes use of the structure of the previously computed SPT. Our algorithm is derived by recasting the SPT problem into an optimization problem in a dual linear programming framework, which can also be interpreted using a ballandstring model. In this model, the increase (or decrease) of an edge weight in the tree corresponds to the lengthening (or shortening) of a string. By stretching the strings...
Fast replanning for navigation in unknown terrain
 Transactions on Robotics
"... Abstract—Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Fo ..."
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Cited by 21 (7 self)
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Abstract—Mobile robots often operate in domains that are only incompletely known, for example, when they have to move from given start coordinates to given goal coordinates in unknown terrain. In this case, they need to be able to replan quickly as their knowledge of the terrain changes. Stentz ’ Focussed Dynamic A (D) is a heuristic search method that repeatedly determines a shortest path from the current robot coordinates to the goal coordinates while the robot moves along the path. It is able to replan faster than planning from scratch since it modifies its previous search results locally. Consequently, it has been extensively used in mobile robotics. In this article, we introduce an alternative to D that determines the same paths and thus moves the robot in the same way but is algorithmically different. D Lite is simple, can be rigorously analyzed, extendible in multiple ways, and is at least as efficient as D. We believe that our results will make Dlike replanning methods even more popular and enable robotics researchers to adapt them to additional applications. Index Terms—A, D (Dynamic A), navigation in unknown terrain, planning with the freespace assumption, replanning, search, sensorbased path planning. I.
Finding timedependent shortest paths over large graphs
 In Proc. EDBT
, 2008
"... The spatial and temporal databases have been studied widely and intensively over years. In this paper, we study how to answer queries of finding the best departure time that minimizes the total travel time from a place to another, over a road network, where the traffic conditions dynamically change ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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The spatial and temporal databases have been studied widely and intensively over years. In this paper, we study how to answer queries of finding the best departure time that minimizes the total travel time from a place to another, over a road network, where the traffic conditions dynamically change from time to time. We study a generalized form of this problem, called the timedependent shortestpath problem. A timedependent graph GT is a graph that has an edgedelay function, wi,j(t), associated with each edge (vi, vj), to be stored in a database. The edgedelay function wi,j(t) specifies how much time it takes to travel from node vi to node vj, if it departs from vi at time t. A userspecified query is to ask the minimumtraveltime path, from a source node, vs, to a destination node, ve, over the timedependent graph, GT, with the best departure time to be selected from a time interval T. We denote this user query as LTT(vs, ve, T) over GT. The challenge of this problem is the added complexity due to the time dependency in the timedependent graph. That is, edge delays are not constants, and can vary from time to time. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to find the minimumtraveltime path with the best departure time for a LTT(vs, ve, T) query over a large graph GT. Our approach outperforms existing algorithms in terms of both time complexity in theory and efficiency in practice. We will discuss the design of our algorithm, together with its correctness and complexity. We conducted extensive experimental studies over large graphs and will report our findings. 1.
Swapping a failing edge of a single source shortest paths tree is good and fast
 Algorithmica
, 1999
"... Abstract. Let G = (V, E) be a 2edge connected, undirected and nonnegatively weighted graph, and let S(r) be a single source shortest paths tree (SPT) of G rooted at r ∈ V. Whenever an edge e in S(r) fails, we are interested in reconnecting the nodes now disconnected from the root by means of a sing ..."
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Cited by 19 (7 self)
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Abstract. Let G = (V, E) be a 2edge connected, undirected and nonnegatively weighted graph, and let S(r) be a single source shortest paths tree (SPT) of G rooted at r ∈ V. Whenever an edge e in S(r) fails, we are interested in reconnecting the nodes now disconnected from the root by means of a single edge e ′ crossing the cut created by the removal of e. Such an edge e ′ is named a swap edge for e. Let Se/e ′(r) be the swap tree (no longer an SPT, in general) obtained by swapping e with e ′ , and let Se be the set of all possible swap trees with respect to e. Let F be a function defined over Se that expresses some feature of a swap tree, such as the average length of a path from the root r to all the nodes below edge e, or the maximum length, or one of many others. A best swap edge for e with respect to F is a swap edge f such that F(Se/f (r)) is minimum. In this paper we present efficient algorithms for the problem of finding a best swap edge, for each edge e of S(r), with respect to several objectives. Our work is motivated by a scenario in which individual connections in a communication network suffer transient failures. As a consequence of an edge failure, the shortest paths to all the nodes below the failed edge might completely change, and it might be desirable to avoid an expensive switch to a new SPT, because the failure is only temporary. As an aside, what we get is not even far from a new SPT: our analysis shows that the trees obtained from the swapping have features very similar to those of the corresponding SPTs rebuilt from scratch. Key Words. Network survivability, Single source shortest paths tree, Swap algorithms. 1. Introduction. Survivability
Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Algorithms for the Single Source Shortest Path Problem
 ACM Jounal of Experimental Algorithmics
, 1997
"... In this paper we propose the first experimental study of the fully dynamic single source shortest paths problem on directed graphs with positive real edge weights. In particular, we perform an experimental analysis of three different algorithms: Dijkstra's algorithm, and the two output bounded al ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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In this paper we propose the first experimental study of the fully dynamic single source shortest paths problem on directed graphs with positive real edge weights. In particular, we perform an experimental analysis of three different algorithms: Dijkstra's algorithm, and the two output bounded algorithms proposed by Ramalingam and Reps in [31] and by Frigioni, MarchettiSpaccamela and Nanni in [18], respectively. The main goal of this paper is to provide a first experimental evidence for: (a) the effectiveness of dynamic algorithms for shortest paths with respect to a traditional static approach to this problem; (b) the validity of the theoretical model of output boundedness to analyze dynamic graph algorithms. Beside random generated graphs, useful to capture the "asymptotic" behavior of algorithms, we also develope experiments by considering a widely used graph from the real world, i.e., the Internet graph. Work partially supported by the ESPRIT Long Term Research Project...
Anytime Search in Dynamic Graphs
"... Agents operating in the real world often have limited time available for planning their next actions. Producing optimal plans is infeasible in these scenarios. Instead, agents must be satisfied with the best plans they can generate within the time available. One class of planners wellsuited to this ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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Agents operating in the real world often have limited time available for planning their next actions. Producing optimal plans is infeasible in these scenarios. Instead, agents must be satisfied with the best plans they can generate within the time available. One class of planners wellsuited to this task are anytime planners, which quickly find an initial, highly suboptimal plan, and then improve this plan until time runs out. A second challenge associated with planning in the real world is that models are usually imperfect and environments are often dynamic. Thus, agents need to update their models and consequently plans over time. Incremental planners, which make use of the results of previous planning efforts to generate a new plan, can substantially speed up each planning episode in such cases. In this paper, we present an A*based anytime search algorithm that produces significantly better solutions than current approaches, while also providing suboptimality bounds on the quality of the solution at any point in time. We also present an extension of this algorithm that is both anytime and incremental. This extension improves its current solution while deliberation time allows and is able to incrementally repair its solution when changes to the world model occur. We provide a number of theoretical and experimental results and demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches in a robot navigation domain involving two physical systems. We believe that the simplicity, theoretical properties, and generality of the presented methods make them well suited to a range of search problems involving large, dynamic graphs.