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68
Parallel Search of Strongly Ordered Game Trees
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1982
"... ... This paper draws upon experiences gained during the development of programs which search chess game trees. Over the past decade major enhancements to the alphabeta algorithm have been developed by people building gameplaying programs, and many of these methods will be surveyed and compared her ..."
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Cited by 94 (17 self)
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... This paper draws upon experiences gained during the development of programs which search chess game trees. Over the past decade major enhancements to the alphabeta algorithm have been developed by people building gameplaying programs, and many of these methods will be surveyed and compared here. The balance of the paper contains a study of contemporary methods for searching chess game trees in parallel, using an arbitrary number of independent processors. To make efficient use of these processors, one must have a clear understanding of the basic properties of the trees actually traversed when alphabeta cutoffs occur. This paper provides such insights and concludes with a brief description of our own refinement to a standard parallel search algorithm for this problem.
The QuantumJump Approach to Dissipative Dynamics in Quantum Optics
"... This article reviews the various quantumjump approaches developed over the past few years. We focus on the theoretical description of basic dynamics and on simple instructive examples rather than the application to numerical simulation methods. ..."
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Cited by 53 (2 self)
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This article reviews the various quantumjump approaches developed over the past few years. We focus on the theoretical description of basic dynamics and on simple instructive examples rather than the application to numerical simulation methods.
SingleAgent and GameTree Search
 DRAFT FOR THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
, 1991
"... ..."
Higherdimensional analogues of DonaldsonWitten theory
 Nucl. Phys. B
, 1997
"... We present a DonaldsonWitten type field theory in eight dimensions on manifolds with Spin(7) holonomy. We prove that the stress tensor is BRST exact for metric variations preserving the holonomy and we give the invariants for this class of variations. In six and seven dimensions we propose similar ..."
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Cited by 42 (5 self)
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We present a DonaldsonWitten type field theory in eight dimensions on manifolds with Spin(7) holonomy. We prove that the stress tensor is BRST exact for metric variations preserving the holonomy and we give the invariants for this class of variations. In six and seven dimensions we propose similar theories on CalabiYau threefolds and manifolds of G2 holonomy respectively. We point out that these theories arise by considering supersymmetric YangMills theory defined on such manifolds. The theories are invariant under metric variations preserving the holonomy structure without the need for twisting. This statement is a higher dimensional analogue of the fact that DonaldsonWitten field theory on hyperKähler 4manifolds is topological without twisting. Higher dimensional analogues of Floer cohomology are briefly outlined. All of these theories arise naturally within the context of string theory. 1
A New Hashing Package for UNIX
, 1991
"... UNIX support of disk oriented hashing was originally provided by dbm [ATT79] and subsequently improved upon in ndbm [BSD86]. In AT&T System V, inmemory hashed storage and access support was added in the hsearch library routines [ATT85]. The result is a system with two incompatible hashing schem ..."
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Cited by 31 (1 self)
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UNIX support of disk oriented hashing was originally provided by dbm [ATT79] and subsequently improved upon in ndbm [BSD86]. In AT&T System V, inmemory hashed storage and access support was added in the hsearch library routines [ATT85]. The result is a system with two incompatible hashing schemes, each with its own set of shortcomings. This paper presents the design and performance characteristics of a new hashing package providing a superset of the functionality provided by dbm and hsearch. The new package uses linear hashing to provide efficient support of both memory based and disk based hash tables with performance superior to both dbm and hsearch under most conditions. Introduction Current UNIX systems offer two forms of hashed data access. Dbm and its derivatives provide keyed access to disk resident data while hsearch provides access for memory resident data. These two access methods are incompatible in that memory resident hash tables may not be stored on disk and disk resid...
Theory and Observations of the Cosmic Background Radiation
 in &quot;Cosmology and Large Scale Structure&quot;, Les Houches Session LX
, 1996
"... These lecture notes describe the state of CMB research up to Spring 1996. The lectures were originally delivered at the Les Houches Session LX in August 1993, but as the written version evolved an attempt was made to keep up with the tremendous pace of development in CMB theory and observation. A be ..."
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Cited by 17 (7 self)
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These lecture notes describe the state of CMB research up to Spring 1996. The lectures were originally delivered at the Les Houches Session LX in August 1993, but as the written version evolved an attempt was made to keep up with the tremendous pace of development in CMB theory and observation. A betarelease preprint version was generated in Winter 1995. This final version corresponds to the published one, with minor further debugs corrected. It was updated to include the “final” COBE/FIRAS data, 4year COBE/DMR and various smaller angle anisotropy data sets, and a brief discussion of the CMB satellites, MAP and Planck. Among the topics covered are: A comprehensive treatment of energy injection of all kinds at high redshift, and the constraints derived from the limits on spectral distortion of the CMB. The observation of anisotropies and phenomenological temperature power spectrum estimates. How 3D random fields illuminated by differential visibility map
Some further experiments on bimolecular lipid membranes
 J. Gen. Physiol
, 1965
"... The authors of this paper have previously reported some electrical properties of simple lipoidal bimolecular leaflets in aqueous solutions (1). Recently, further investigations along similar lines have been carried out, the results of which are summarized in the following paragraphs. The Frequency D ..."
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The authors of this paper have previously reported some electrical properties of simple lipoidal bimolecular leaflets in aqueous solutions (1). Recently, further investigations along similar lines have been carried out, the results of which are summarized in the following paragraphs. The Frequency Dependence of Capacitance and Conductance In the earlier experiments it was established that a bilayer of pure egg phosphatidyl choline containing less than 50 per cent by volume of ndecane had a capacitance of 0.38 /ff/cm 2, this value being independent of applied voltage up to at least 50 my and independent of frequency between 200 and 5 X 106 cs. It was also unaffected by the nature and concentration of the surrounding electrolyte solution for NaCl, KC1, and CaC1 2. In an attempt to discover more about the electrical properties of the film at frequencies below 200 cps the time dependence of the response to a sudden change in the D.C. potential across the film was examined. The transients were characterized by a single time constant and, using the measured value of the
Material and process limits in silicon VLSI technology
 Proc. IEEE
, 2001
"... The integrated circuit (IC) industry has followed a steady path of shrinking device geometries for more than 30 years. It is widely believed that this process will continue for at least another ten years. However, there are increasingly difficult materials and technology problems to be solved over ..."
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The integrated circuit (IC) industry has followed a steady path of shrinking device geometries for more than 30 years. It is widely believed that this process will continue for at least another ten years. However, there are increasingly difficult materials and technology problems to be solved over the next decade if this is to actually occur and, beyond ten years, there is great uncertainty about the ability to continue scaling metal–oxide–semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (MOSFET) structures. This paper describes some of the most challenging materials and process issues to be faced in the future and, where possible solutions are known, describes these potential solutions. The paper is written with the underlying assumption that the basic metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) transistor will remain the dominant switching device used in ICs and it further assumes that silicon will remain the dominant substrate material. Keywords—Dielectric materials, MOSFETs, semiconductor device doping, semiconductor device fabrication, silicon. I.
COMPLEXITY CLASSES AS MATHEMATICAL AXIOMS
, 810
"... Abstract. Treating a conjecture, P #P ̸ = NP, on the separation of complexity classes as an axiom, an implication is found in three manifold topology with little obvious connection to complexity theory. This is reminiscent of Harvey Friedman’s work on finitistic interpretations of large cardinal axi ..."
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Abstract. Treating a conjecture, P #P ̸ = NP, on the separation of complexity classes as an axiom, an implication is found in three manifold topology with little obvious connection to complexity theory. This is reminiscent of Harvey Friedman’s work on finitistic interpretations of large cardinal axioms. 1.
A Summary and Assessment of Historical Reliability and Maintainability Data for Active Solar Hot Water and Space Conditioning Systems
, 1904
"... This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States ..."
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This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States