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168
Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data
, 2002
"... Realtime control of threedimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made available, and the user must be able to select from this s ..."
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Cited by 370 (37 self)
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Realtime control of threedimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made available, and the user must be able to select from this set of behaviors, possibly with a lowdimensional input device. One appealing approach to obtaining a rich set of avatar behaviors is to collect an extended, unlabeled sequence of motion data appropriate to the application. In this paper, we show that such a motion database can be preprocessed for flexibility in behavior and efficient search and exploited for realtime avatar control. Flexibility is created by identifying plausible transitions between motion segments, and efficient search through the resulting graph structure is obtained through clustering. Three interface techniques are demonstrated for controlling avatar motion using this data structure: the user selects from a set of available choices, sketches a path through an environment, or acts out a desired motion in front of a video camera. We demonstrate the flexibility of the approach through four different applications and compare the avatar motion to directly recorded human motion.
A Hierarchical Approach to Interactive Motion Editing for Humanlike Figures
, 1999
"... This paper presents a technique for adapting existing motion of a humanlike character to have the desired features that are specified by a set of constraints. This problem can be typically formulated as a spacetime constraint problem. Our approach combines a hierarchical curve fitting technique wit ..."
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Cited by 227 (15 self)
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This paper presents a technique for adapting existing motion of a humanlike character to have the desired features that are specified by a set of constraints. This problem can be typically formulated as a spacetime constraint problem. Our approach combines a hierarchical curve fitting technique with a new inverse kinematics solver. Using the kinematics solver, we can adjust the configuration of an articulated figure to meet the constraints in each frame. Through the fitting technique, the motion displacement of every joint at each constrained frame is interpolated and thus smoothly propagated to frames. We are able to adaptively add motion details to satisfy the constraints within a specified tolerance by adopting a multilevel Bspline representation which also provides a speedup for the interpolation. The performance of our system is further enhanced by the new inverse kinematics solver. We present a closedform solution to compute the joint angles of a limb linkage. This analytical m...
Physically based motion transformation
 In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 99. Computer Graphics Proceedings
, 1999
"... We introduce a novel algorithm for transforming character animation sequences that preserves essential physical properties of the motion. By using the spacetime constraints dynamics formulation our algorithm maintains realism of the original motion sequence without sacrificing full user control of ..."
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Cited by 208 (6 self)
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We introduce a novel algorithm for transforming character animation sequences that preserves essential physical properties of the motion. By using the spacetime constraints dynamics formulation our algorithm maintains realism of the original motion sequence without sacrificing full user control of the editing process. In contrast to most physically based animation techniques that synthesize motion from scratch, we take the approach of motion transformation as the underlying paradigm for generating computer animations. In doing so, we combine the expressive richness of an input animation sequence with the controllability of spacetime optimization to create a wide range of realistic character animations. The spacetime dynamics formulation also allows editing of intuitive, highlevel motion concepts such as the time and placement of footprints, length and mass of various extremities, number of body joints and gravity. Our algorithm is well suited for the reuse of highlydetailed captured motion animations. In addition, we describe a new methodology for mapping a motion between characters with drastically different numbers of degrees of freedom. We use this method to reduce the complexity of the spacetime optimization problems. Furthermore, our approach provides a paradigm for controlling complex dynamic and kinematic systems with simpler ones.
Synthesizing physically realistic human motion in lowdimensional, behaviorspecific spaces
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2004
"... Optimization is an appealing way to compute the motion of an animated character because it allows the user to specify the desired motion in a sparse, intuitive way. The difficulty of solving this problem for complex characters such as humans is due in part to the high dimensionality of the search sp ..."
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Cited by 195 (14 self)
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Optimization is an appealing way to compute the motion of an animated character because it allows the user to specify the desired motion in a sparse, intuitive way. The difficulty of solving this problem for complex characters such as humans is due in part to the high dimensionality of the search space. The dimensionality is an artifact of the problem representation because most dynamic human behaviors are intrinsically low dimensional with, for example, legs and arms operating in a coordinated way. We describe a method that exploits this observation to create an optimization problem that is easier to solve. Our method utilizes an existing motion capture database to find a lowdimensional space that captures the properties of the desired behavior. We show that when the optimization problem is solved within this lowdimensional subspace, a sparse sketch can be used as an initial guess and full physics constraints can be enabled. We demonstrate the power of our approach with examples of forward, vertical, and turning jumps; with running and walking; and with several acrobatic flips.
Motion Capture Assisted Animation: Texturing and Synthesis
, 2002
"... We discuss a method for creating animations that allows the animator to sketch an animation by setting a small number of keyframes on a fraction of the possible degrees of freedom. Motion capture data is then used to enhance the animation. Detail is added to degrees of freedom that were keyframed, a ..."
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Cited by 150 (3 self)
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We discuss a method for creating animations that allows the animator to sketch an animation by setting a small number of keyframes on a fraction of the possible degrees of freedom. Motion capture data is then used to enhance the animation. Detail is added to degrees of freedom that were keyframed, a process we call texturing. Degrees of freedom that were not keyframed are synthesized. The method takes advantage of the fact that joint motions of an articulated figure are often correlated, so that given an incomplete data set, the missing degrees of freedom can be predicted from those that are present.
Adapting Simulated Behaviors for New Characters
, 1997
"... This paper describes an algorithm for automatically adapting existing simulated behaviors to new characters. Animating a new character is difficult because a control system tuned for one character will not, in general, work on a character with different limb lengths, masses, or moments of inertia. T ..."
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Cited by 122 (5 self)
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This paper describes an algorithm for automatically adapting existing simulated behaviors to new characters. Animating a new character is difficult because a control system tuned for one character will not, in general, work on a character with different limb lengths, masses, or moments of inertia. The algorithm presented here adapts the control system to a new character in two stages. First, the control system parameters are scaled based on the sizes, masses, and moments of inertia of the new and the original characters. Then a subset of the parameters is finetuned using a search process based on simulated annealing. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, we animate the running motion of a woman, child, and imaginary character by modifying the control system for a man. We also animate the bicycling motion of a second imaginary character by modifying the control system for a man. We evaluate the results of this approach by comparing the motion of the simulated human runners...
Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion
, 2003
"... Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Tra ..."
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Cited by 117 (3 self)
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Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Traditional approaches often require optimizing or constraining parameters involving joint torques; obtaining first derivatives for these parameters is generally an O(D²) process, where D is the number of degrees of freedom of the character. In this paper, we describe a set of objective functions and constraints that lead to linear time analytical first derivatives. The surprising finding is that this set includes constraints on physical validity, such as ground contact constraints. Considering only constraints and objective functions that lead to linear time first derivatives results in fast periteration computation times and an optimization problem that appears to scale well to more complex characters. We show that qualities such as squashandstretch that are expected from physically based optimization result from our approach. Our animation system is particularly useful for synthesizing highly dynamic motions, and we show examples of swinging and leaping motions for characters having from 7 to 22 degrees of freedom.
Synthesizing animations of human manipulation tasks
 ACM. Trans. on Graphics
, 2004
"... Even such simple tasks as placing a box on a shelf are difficult to animate, because the animator must carefully position the character to satisfy geometric and balance constraints while creating motion to perform the task with a naturallooking style. In this paper, we explore an approach for anima ..."
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Cited by 102 (9 self)
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Even such simple tasks as placing a box on a shelf are difficult to animate, because the animator must carefully position the character to satisfy geometric and balance constraints while creating motion to perform the task with a naturallooking style. In this paper, we explore an approach for animating characters manipulating objects that combines the power of path planning with the domain knowledge inherent in datadriven, constraintbased inverse kinematics. A path planner is used to find a motion for the object such that the corresponding poses of the character satisfy geometric, kinematic, and posture constraints. The inverse kinematics computation of the character’s pose resolves redundancy by biasing the solution toward naturallooking poses extracted from a database of captured motions. Having this database greatly helps to increase the quality of the output motion. The computed path is converted to a motion trajectory using a model of the velocity profile. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm by generating animations across a wide range of scenarios that cover variations in the geometric, kinematic, and dynamic models of the character, the manipulated object, and obstacles in the scene.
Computer Puppetry: An ImportanceBased Approach
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2001
"... this article, we provide a comprehensive solution to the problem of transferring the observations of the motion capture sensors to an animated character whose size and proportion may be different from the performer's. Our goal is to map as many of the important aspects of the motion to the targ ..."
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Cited by 99 (6 self)
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this article, we provide a comprehensive solution to the problem of transferring the observations of the motion capture sensors to an animated character whose size and proportion may be different from the performer's. Our goal is to map as many of the important aspects of the motion to the target character as possible, while meeting the online, realtime demands of computer puppetry. We adopt a Kalman filter scheme that addresses motion capture noise issues in this setting. We provide the notion of dynamic importance of an endeffector that allows us to determine what aspects of the performance must be kept in the resulting motion. We introduce a novel inverse kinematics solver that realizes these important aspects within tight realtime constraints. Our approach is demonstrated by its application to broadcast television performances