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Four Small Universal Turing Machines
, 2009
"... We present universal Turing machines with statesymbol pairs of (5, 5), (6, 4), (9, 3) and (15, 2). These machines simulate our new variant of tag system, the bitag system and are the smallest known singletape universal Turing machines with 5, 4, 3 and 2symbols, respectively. Our 5symbol machin ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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We present universal Turing machines with statesymbol pairs of (5, 5), (6, 4), (9, 3) and (15, 2). These machines simulate our new variant of tag system, the bitag system and are the smallest known singletape universal Turing machines with 5, 4, 3 and 2symbols, respectively. Our 5symbol machine uses the same number of instructions (22) as the smallest known universal Turing machine by Rogozhin. Also, all of the universal machines we present here simulate Turing machines in polynomial time.
The complexity of small universal Turing machines: a survey
, 2007
"... We survey some work concerned with small universal Turing machines, cellular automata, tag systems, and other simple models of computation. For example it has been an open question for some time as to whether the smallest known universal Turing machines of Minsky, Rogozhin, Baiocchi and Kudlek are e ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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We survey some work concerned with small universal Turing machines, cellular automata, tag systems, and other simple models of computation. For example it has been an open question for some time as to whether the smallest known universal Turing machines of Minsky, Rogozhin, Baiocchi and Kudlek are efficient (polynomial time) simulators of Turing machines. These are some of the most intuitively simple computational devices and previously the best known simulations were exponentially slow. We discuss recent work that shows that these machines are indeed efficient simulators. As a related result we also find that Rule 110, a wellknown elementary cellular automaton, is also efficiently universal. We also mention some old and new universal programsize results, including new small universal Turing machines and new weakly, and semiweakly, universal Turing machines. We then discuss some ideas for future work arising out of these, and other, results.
On the computational complexity of spiking neural P systems
 In 7th International Conference on Unconventional Computation (UC 2008), volume 5204 of LNCS
, 2008
"... Abstract. It is shown here that there is no standard spiking neural P system that simulates Turing machines with less than exponential time and space overheads. The spiking neural P systems considered here have a constant number of neurons that is independent of the input length. Following this, we ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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Abstract. It is shown here that there is no standard spiking neural P system that simulates Turing machines with less than exponential time and space overheads. The spiking neural P systems considered here have a constant number of neurons that is independent of the input length. Following this, we construct a universal spiking neural P system with exhaustive use of rules that simulates Turing machines in linear time and has only 10 neurons. 1
Information Theory and Computational Thermodynamics: Lessons for Biology from Physics
 INFORMATION
, 2012
"... ..."
Internal Examiner: Dr. James Power
"... My supervisor Damien Woods deserves a special thank you. His help and guidance went far beyond the role of supervisor. He was always enthusiastic, and generous with his time. This work would not have happened without him. I would also like to thank my supervisor Paul Gibson for his advice and suppor ..."
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My supervisor Damien Woods deserves a special thank you. His help and guidance went far beyond the role of supervisor. He was always enthusiastic, and generous with his time. This work would not have happened without him. I would also like to thank my supervisor Paul Gibson for his advice and support. Thanks to the staff and postgraduates in the computer science department at NUI Maynooth for their support and friendship over the last few years. In particular, I would like to mention Niall Murphy he has always been ready to help whenever he could and would often lighten the mood in dark times with some rousing Gilbert and Sullivan. I thank the following people for their interesting discussions and/or advice:
A Concrete View of Rule 110 Computation
, 906
"... Rule 110 is a cellular automaton that performs repeated simultaneous updates of an infinite row of binary values. The values are updated in the following way: 0s are changed to 1s at all positions where the value to the right is a 1, while 1s are changed to 0s at all positions where the values to th ..."
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Rule 110 is a cellular automaton that performs repeated simultaneous updates of an infinite row of binary values. The values are updated in the following way: 0s are changed to 1s at all positions where the value to the right is a 1, while 1s are changed to 0s at all positions where the values to the left and right are both 1. Though trivial to define, the behavior exhibited by Rule 110 is surprisingly intricate, and in [1] we showed that it is capable of emulating the activity of a Turing machine by encoding the Turing machine and its tape into a repeating left pattern, a central pattern, and a repeating right pattern, which Rule 110 then acts on. In this paper we provide an explicit compiler for converting a Turing machine into a Rule 110 initial state, and we present a general approach for proving that such constructions will work as intended. The simulation was originally assumed to require exponential time, but surprising results of Neary and Woods [2] have shown that in fact, only polynomial time is required. We use the methods of Neary and Woods to exhibit a direct simulation of a Turing machine by a tag system in polynomial time. 1 Compiling a Turing machine into a Rule 110 State In this section we give a concrete algorithm for compiling a Turing machine and its tape into an initial state for Rule 110, following the construction given in [1]. We will create an initial state that will eventually