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Bounded Arithmetic and Propositional Proof Complexity
 in Logic of Computation
, 1995
"... This is a survey of basic facts about bounded arithmetic and about the relationships between bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity. We introduce the theories S 2 of bounded arithmetic and characterize their proof theoretic strength and their provably total functions in terms of t ..."
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This is a survey of basic facts about bounded arithmetic and about the relationships between bounded arithmetic and propositional proof complexity. We introduce the theories S 2 of bounded arithmetic and characterize their proof theoretic strength and their provably total functions in terms of the polynomial time hierarchy. We discuss other axiomatizations of bounded arithmetic, such as minimization axioms. It is shown that the bounded arithmetic hierarchy collapses if and only if bounded arithmetic proves that the polynomial hierarchy collapses. We discuss Frege and extended Frege proof length, and the two translations from bounded arithmetic proofs into propositional proofs. We present some theorems on bounding the lengths of propositional interpolants in terms of cutfree proof length and in terms of the lengths of resolution refutations. We then define the RazborovRudich notion of natural proofs of P NP and discuss Razborov's theorem that certain fragments of bounded arithmetic cannot prove superpolynomial lower bounds on circuit size, assuming a strong cryptographic conjecture. Finally, a complete presentation of a proof of the theorem of Razborov is given. 1 Review of Computational Complexity 1.1 Feasibility This article will be concerned with various "feasible" forms of computability and of provability. For something to be feasibly computable, it must be computable in practice in the real world, not merely e#ectively computable in the sense of being recursively computable.
Bounded Arithmetic and Constant Depth Frege Proofs
, 2004
"... We discuss the ParisWilkie translation from bounded arithmeticproofs to bounded depth propositional proofs in both relativized and nonrelativized forms. We describe normal forms for proofs in boundedarithmetic, and a definition of \Sigma 0depth for PKproofs that makes the translation from boun ..."
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We discuss the ParisWilkie translation from bounded arithmeticproofs to bounded depth propositional proofs in both relativized and nonrelativized forms. We describe normal forms for proofs in boundedarithmetic, and a definition of \Sigma 0depth for PKproofs that makes the translation from bounded arithmetic to propositional logic particularlytransparent. Using this, we give new proofs of the witnessing theorems for S12and T 12; namely, new proofs that the \Sigma b1definable functions of S12are polynomial time computable and that the \Sigma b1definable functions of T 12 are in Polynomial Local Search (PLS). Both proofs generalize to \Sigma