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31
A capability calculus for concurrency and determinism
 In CONCUR 2006  Concurrency Theory, 17th International Conference, Proceedings
, 2006
"... Abstract. We present a capability calculus for checking partial confluence of channelcommunicating concurrent processes. Our approach automatically detects more programs to be partially confluent than previous approaches and is able to handle a mix of different kinds of communication channels, incl ..."
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Abstract. We present a capability calculus for checking partial confluence of channelcommunicating concurrent processes. Our approach automatically detects more programs to be partially confluent than previous approaches and is able to handle a mix of different kinds of communication channels, including shared reference cells. 1
Exp.Open 2.0: A Flexible Tool Integrating Partial Order, Compositional, and Onthefly Verification Methods
, 2005
"... It is desirable to integrate formal verification techniques applicable to different languages. We present Exp.Open 2.0, a new tool of the Cadp verification toolbox which combines several features. First, Exp.Open 2.0 allows to describe concurrent systems as a composition of finite state machines, ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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It is desirable to integrate formal verification techniques applicable to different languages. We present Exp.Open 2.0, a new tool of the Cadp verification toolbox which combines several features. First, Exp.Open 2.0 allows to describe concurrent systems as a composition of finite state machines, using either synchronization vectors, or parallel composition, hiding, renaming, and cut operators from several process algebras (Ccs, Csp, Lotos, ELotos, µCrl). Second, together with other tools of Cadp, Exp.Open 2.0 allows state space generation and onthefly exploration. Third, Exp.Open 2.0 implements onthefly partial order reductions to avoid the generation of irrelevant interleavings of independent transitions. Fourth, Exp.Open 2.0 allows to export models towards other tools using interchange formats such as automata networks and Petri nets. Finally, we show some practical applications and measure the efficiency of Exp.Open 2.0 on several benchmarks.
Calculating τConfluence Compositionally
 in ComputerAided Verification (CAV 2003), in Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2003
"... Abstract. τconfluence is a reduction technique used in enumerative modelchecking of labeled transition systems to avoid the state explosion problem. In this paper, we propose a new onthefly algorithm to calculate partial τconfluence, and propose new techniques to do so on large systems in a com ..."
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Cited by 10 (8 self)
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Abstract. τconfluence is a reduction technique used in enumerative modelchecking of labeled transition systems to avoid the state explosion problem. In this paper, we propose a new onthefly algorithm to calculate partial τconfluence, and propose new techniques to do so on large systems in a compositional manner. Using information inherent in the way a large system is composed of smaller systems, we show how we can deduce partial τconfluence in a computationally cheap manner. Finally, these techniques are applied to a number of case studies, including the rel/REL atomic multicast protocol. 1
Model Classifications and Automated Verification
 In Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems (FMICS’07
, 2007
"... Abstract. Due to the significant progress in automated verification, there are often several techniques for a particular verification problem. In many circumstances different techniques are complementary — each technique works well for different type of input instances. Unfortunately, it is not clea ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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Abstract. Due to the significant progress in automated verification, there are often several techniques for a particular verification problem. In many circumstances different techniques are complementary — each technique works well for different type of input instances. Unfortunately, it is not clear how to choose an appropriate technique for a specific instance of a problem. In this work we argue that this problem, selection of a technique and tuning its parameter values, should be considered as a standalone problem (a verification metasearch). We propose several classifications of models of asynchronous system and discuss applications of these classifications in the context of explicit finite state model checking. 1
State space reduction of rewrite theories using invisible transitions
 P. Proceedings of the 21st German Annual Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2006
"... Abstract. State space explosion is the hardest challenge to the effective application of model checking methods. We present a new technique for achieving drastic state space reductions that can be applied to a very wide range of concurrent systems, namely any system specified as a rewrite theory. Gi ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Abstract. State space explosion is the hardest challenge to the effective application of model checking methods. We present a new technique for achieving drastic state space reductions that can be applied to a very wide range of concurrent systems, namely any system specified as a rewrite theory. Given a rewrite theory R = (Σ, E, R) whose equational part (Σ, E) specifies some state predicates P, we identify a subset S ⊆ R of rewrite rules that are Pinvisible, so that rewriting with S does not change the truth value of the predicates P. We then use S to construct a reduced rewrite theory R/S in which all states reachable by Stransitions become identified. We show that if R/S satisfies reasonable executability assumptions, then it is in fact stuttering bisimilar to R and therefore both satisfy the same CT L ∗ −X formulas. We can then use the typically much smaller R/S to verify such formulas. We show through several case studies that the reductions achievable this way can be huge in practice. Furthermore, we also present a generalization of our construction that instead uses a stuttering simulation and can be applied to an even broader class of systems. 1
Fighting state space explosion: Review and evaluation
 In Proc. of Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems (FMICS’08
, 2008
"... Abstract. In order to apply formal methods in practice, the practitioner has to comprehend a vast amount of research literature and realistically evaluate practical merits of different approaches. In this paper we focus on explicit finite state model checking and study this area from practitioner’s ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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Abstract. In order to apply formal methods in practice, the practitioner has to comprehend a vast amount of research literature and realistically evaluate practical merits of different approaches. In this paper we focus on explicit finite state model checking and study this area from practitioner’s point of view. We provide a systematic overview of techniques for fighting state space explosion and we analyse trends in the research. We also report on our own experience with practical performance of techniques. Our main conclusion and recommendation for practitioner is the following: be critical to claims of dramatic improvement brought by a single sophisticated technique, rather use many different simple techniques and combine them. 1
Partial Order Reductions using Compositional Confluence Detection
 16TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FORMAL METHODS FM'2009
, 2009
"... Explicit state methods have proven useful in verifying safetycritical systems containing concurrent processes that run asynchronously and communicate. Such methods consist of inspecting the states and transitions of a graph representation of the system. Their main limitation is state explosion, wh ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Explicit state methods have proven useful in verifying safetycritical systems containing concurrent processes that run asynchronously and communicate. Such methods consist of inspecting the states and transitions of a graph representation of the system. Their main limitation is state explosion, which happens when the graph is too large to be stored in the available computer memory. Several techniques can be used to palliate state explosion, such as onthefly verification, compositional verification, and partial order reductions. In this paper, we propose a new technique of partial order reductions based on compositional confluence detection (Ccd), which can be combined with the techniques mentioned above. Ccd is based upon a generalization of the notion of confluence defined by Milner and exploits the fact that synchronizing transitions that are confluent in the individual processes yield a confluent transition in the system graph. It thus consists of analysing the transitions of the individual process graphs and the synchronization structure to identify such confluent transitions compositionally. Under some additional conditions, the confluent transitions can be given priority over the other transitions, thus enabling graph reductions. We propose two such additional conditions: one ensuring that the generated graph is equivalent to the original system graph modulo branching bisimulation, and one ensuring that the generated graph contains the same deadlock states as the original system graph. We also describe how Ccdbased reductions were implemented in the Cadp toolbox, and present examples and a case study in which adding Ccd improves reductions with respect to compositional verification and other partial order reductions.
A linear processalgebraic format for probabilistic systems with data
"... Abstract—This paper presents a novel linear processalgebraic format for probabilistic automata. The key ingredient is a symbolic transformation of probabilistic process algebra terms that incorporate data into this linear format while preserving strong probabilistic bisimulation. This generalises si ..."
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Abstract—This paper presents a novel linear processalgebraic format for probabilistic automata. The key ingredient is a symbolic transformation of probabilistic process algebra terms that incorporate data into this linear format while preserving strong probabilistic bisimulation. This generalises similar techniques for traditional process algebras with data, and — more importantly — treats data and datadependent probabilistic choice in a fully symbolic manner, paving the way to the symbolic analysis of parameterised probabilistic systems. Keywordsprobabilistic process algebra, linearisation, datadependent probabilistic choice, symbolic transformations I.