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51
Dynamic Textures
, 2002
"... Dynamic textures are sequences of images of moving scenes that exhibit certain stationarity properties in time; these include seawaves, smoke, foliage, whirlwind etc. We present a novel characterization of dynamic textures that poses the problems of modeling, learning, recognizing and synthesizing ..."
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Cited by 286 (15 self)
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Dynamic textures are sequences of images of moving scenes that exhibit certain stationarity properties in time; these include seawaves, smoke, foliage, whirlwind etc. We present a novel characterization of dynamic textures that poses the problems of modeling, learning, recognizing and synthesizing dynamic textures on a firm analytical footing. We borrow tools from system identification to capture the "essence" of dynamic textures; we do so by learning (i.e. identifying) models that are optimal in the sense of maximum likelihood or minimum prediction error variance. For the special case of secondorder stationary processes, we identify the model suboptimally in closedform. Once learned, a model has predictive power and can be used for extrapolating synthetic sequences to infinite length with negligible computational cost. We present experimental evidence that, within our framework, even lowdimensional models can capture very complex visual phenomena.
Synthesizing physically realistic human motion in lowdimensional, behaviorspecific spaces
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2004
"... Optimization is an appealing way to compute the motion of an animated character because it allows the user to specify the desired motion in a sparse, intuitive way. The difficulty of solving this problem for complex characters such as humans is due in part to the high dimensionality of the search sp ..."
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Cited by 140 (13 self)
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Optimization is an appealing way to compute the motion of an animated character because it allows the user to specify the desired motion in a sparse, intuitive way. The difficulty of solving this problem for complex characters such as humans is due in part to the high dimensionality of the search space. The dimensionality is an artifact of the problem representation because most dynamic human behaviors are intrinsically low dimensional with, for example, legs and arms operating in a coordinated way. We describe a method that exploits this observation to create an optimization problem that is easier to solve. Our method utilizes an existing motion capture database to find a lowdimensional space that captures the properties of the desired behavior. We show that when the optimization problem is solved within this lowdimensional subspace, a sparse sketch can be used as an initial guess and full physics constraints can be enabled. We demonstrate the power of our approach with examples of forward, vertical, and turning jumps; with running and walking; and with several acrobatic flips.
Nonconvex rigid bodies with stacking
 ACM Trans. Graph
"... We consider the simulation of nonconvex rigid bodies focusing on interactions such as collision, contact, friction (kinetic, static, rolling and spinning) and stacking. We advocate representing the geometry with both a triangulated surface and a signed distance function defined on a grid, and this d ..."
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Cited by 91 (8 self)
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We consider the simulation of nonconvex rigid bodies focusing on interactions such as collision, contact, friction (kinetic, static, rolling and spinning) and stacking. We advocate representing the geometry with both a triangulated surface and a signed distance function defined on a grid, and this dual representation is shown to have many advantages. We propose a novel approach to time integration merging it with the collision and contact processing algorithms in a fashion that obviates the need for ad hoc threshold velocities. We show that this approach matches the theoretical solution for blocks sliding and stopping on inclined planes with friction. We also present a new shock propagation algorithm that allows for efficient use of the propagation (as opposed to the simultaneous) method for treating contact. These new techniques are demonstrated on a variety of problems ranging from simple test cases to stacking problems with as many as 1000 nonconvex rigid bodies with friction as shown in Figure 1.
Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion
, 2003
"... Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Tra ..."
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Cited by 91 (3 self)
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Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Traditional approaches often require optimizing or constraining parameters involving joint torques; obtaining first derivatives for these parameters is generally an O(D²) process, where D is the number of degrees of freedom of the character. In this paper, we describe a set of objective functions and constraints that lead to linear time analytical first derivatives. The surprising finding is that this set includes constraints on physical validity, such as ground contact constraints. Considering only constraints and objective functions that lead to linear time first derivatives results in fast periteration computation times and an optimization problem that appears to scale well to more complex characters. We show that qualities such as squashandstretch that are expected from physically based optimization result from our approach. Our animation system is particularly useful for synthesizing highly dynamic motions, and we show examples of swinging and leaping motions for characters having from 7 to 22 degrees of freedom.
Keyframe Control of Smoke Simulations
, 2003
"... We describe a method for controlling smoke simulations through userspecified keyframes. To achieve the desired behavior, a continuous quasiNewton optimization solves for appropriate "wind" forces to be applied to the underlying velocity field throughout the simulation. The cornerstone of our appro ..."
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Cited by 77 (2 self)
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We describe a method for controlling smoke simulations through userspecified keyframes. To achieve the desired behavior, a continuous quasiNewton optimization solves for appropriate "wind" forces to be applied to the underlying velocity field throughout the simulation. The cornerstone of our approach is a method to efficiently compute exact derivatives through the steps of a fluid simulation. We formulate an objective function corresponding to how well a simulation matches the user's keyframes, and use the derivatives to solve for force parameters that minimize this function. For animations with several keyframes, we present a novel multipleshooting approach. By splitting large problems into smaller overlapping subproblems, we greatly speed up the optimization process while avoiding certain local minima.
Fluid Control Using the Adjoint Method
 ACM TRANS. GRAPH. (SIGGRAPH PROC
, 2004
"... We describe a novel method for controlling physicsbased fluid simulations through gradientbased nonlinear optimization. Using a technique known as the adjoint method, derivatives can be computed efficiently, even for large 3D simulations with millions of control parameters. In addition, we introdu ..."
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Cited by 70 (1 self)
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We describe a novel method for controlling physicsbased fluid simulations through gradientbased nonlinear optimization. Using a technique known as the adjoint method, derivatives can be computed efficiently, even for large 3D simulations with millions of control parameters. In addition, we introduce the first method for the full control of freesurface liquids. We show how to compute adjoint derivatives through each step of the simulation, including the fast marching algorithm, and describe a new set of control parameters specifically designed for liquids.
Sampling Plausible Solutions to Multibody Constraint Problems
, 2000
"... Traditional collision intensive multibody simulations are difficult to control due to extreme sensitivity to initial conditions or model parameters. Furthermore, there may be multiple ways to achieve any one goal, and it may be difficult to codify a user's preferences before they have seen the avai ..."
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Cited by 60 (2 self)
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Traditional collision intensive multibody simulations are difficult to control due to extreme sensitivity to initial conditions or model parameters. Furthermore, there may be multiple ways to achieve any one goal, and it may be difficult to codify a user's preferences before they have seen the available solutions. In this paper we extend simulation models to include plausible sources of uncertainty, and then use a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample multiple animations that satisfy constraints. A user can choose the animation they prefer, or applications can take direct advantage of the multiple solutions. Our technique is applicable when a probability can be attached to each animation, with "good" animations having high probability, and for such cases we provide a definition of physical plausibility for animations. We demonstrate our approach with examples of multibody rigidbody simulations that satisfy constraints of various kinds, for each case presenting animations that are true to a physical model, are significantly different from each other, and yet still satisfy the constraints. CR Descriptors: I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: ThreeDimensional Graphics and Realism  Animation; I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling  Physically based modeling; I.6.5 [Simulation and Modeling]: Model Development  Modeling methodologies G.3 [Probability and Statistics]: Probabilistic algorithms; Keywords: plausible motion, Markov chain Monte Carlo, motion synthesis, spacetime constraints 1
OptimizationBased Animation
, 2002
"... A new paradigm for rigid body simulation is presented and analyzed. Current techniques for rigid body simulation run slowly on scenes with many bodies in close proximity. Each time two bodies collide or make or break a static contact, the simulator must interrupt the numerical integration of velocit ..."
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Cited by 36 (1 self)
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A new paradigm for rigid body simulation is presented and analyzed. Current techniques for rigid body simulation run slowly on scenes with many bodies in close proximity. Each time two bodies collide or make or break a static contact, the simulator must interrupt the numerical integration of velocities and accelerations. Even for simple scenes, the number of discontinuities per frame time can rise to the millions. An efficient optimizationbased animation (OBA) algorithm is presented which can simulate scenes with many convex threedimensional bodies settling into stacks and other “crowded” arrangements. This algorithm simulates Newtonian (second order) physics and Coulomb friction, and it uses quadratic programming (QP) to calculate new positions, momenta, and accelerations strictly at frame times. The extremely small integration steps inherent to traditional simulation techniques are avoided. Contact points are synchronized at the end of each frame. Resolving contacts with friction is known to be a difficult problem. Analytic force calculation can have ambiguous or nonexisting solutions. Purely impulsive techniques avoid these ambiguous cases, but still require an excessive and computationally expensive number of updates in the case of
Evaluating the Visual Fidelity of Physically Based Animations
, 2003
"... For many systems that produce physically based animations, plausibility rather than accuracy is acceptable. We consider the problem of evaluating the visual quality of animations in which physical parameters have been distorted or degraded, either unavoidably due to realtime framerate requirements ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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For many systems that produce physically based animations, plausibility rather than accuracy is acceptable. We consider the problem of evaluating the visual quality of animations in which physical parameters have been distorted or degraded, either unavoidably due to realtime framerate requirements, or intentionally for aesthetic reasons. To date, no generic means of evaluating or predicting the fidelity, either physical or visual, of the dynamic events occurring in an animation exists. As a first step towards providing such a metric, we present a set of psychophysical experiments that established some thresholds for human sensitivity to dynamic anomalies, including angular, momentum and spatiotemporal distortions applied to simple animations depicting the elastic collision of two rigid objects. In addition to finding significant acceptance thresholds for these distortions under varying conditions, we identified some interesting biases that indicate nonsymmetric responses to these distortions (e.g., expansion of the angle between postcollision trajectories was preferred to contraction and increases in velocity were preferred to decreases). Based on these results, we derived a set of probability functions that can be used to evaluate the visual fidelity of a physically based simulation. To illustrate how our results could be used, two simple case studies of simulation levels of detail and constrained dynamics are presented.
Hybrid control for interactive character animation
 In PG ’03: Proceedings of the 11th Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE Computer Society
, 2003
"... We implement a framework for animating interactive characters by combining kinematic animation with physical simulation. The combination of animation techniques allows the characters to exploit the advantages of each technique. For example, characters can perform naturallooking kinematic gaits and r ..."
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Cited by 32 (5 self)
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We implement a framework for animating interactive characters by combining kinematic animation with physical simulation. The combination of animation techniques allows the characters to exploit the advantages of each technique. For example, characters can perform naturallooking kinematic gaits and react dynamically to unexpected situations. Kinematic techniques such as those based on motion capture data can create very naturallooking animation. However, motion capture based techniques are not suitable for modeling the complex interactions between dynamically interacting characters. Physical simulation, on the other hand, is well suited for such tasks. Our work develops kinematic and dynamic controllers and transition methods between the two control methods for interactive character animation. In addition, we utilize the motion graph technique to develop complex kinematic animation from shorter motion clips as a method of kinematic control. 1.