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Hybrid Automata: An Algorithmic Approach to the Specification and Verification of Hybrid Systems
, 1992
"... We introduce the framework of hybrid automata as a model and specification language for hybrid systems. Hybrid automata can be viewed as a generalization of timed automata, in which the behavior of variables is governed in each state by a set of differential equations. We show that many of the examp ..."
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Cited by 460 (20 self)
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We introduce the framework of hybrid automata as a model and specification language for hybrid systems. Hybrid automata can be viewed as a generalization of timed automata, in which the behavior of variables is governed in each state by a set of differential equations. We show that many of the examples considered in the workshop can be defined by hybrid automata. While the reachability problem is undecidable even for very restricted classes of hybrid automata, we present two semidecision procedures for verifying safety properties of piecewiselinear hybrid automata, in which all variables change at constant rates. The two procedures are based, respectively, on minimizing and computing fixpoints on generally infinite state spaces. We show that if the procedures terminate, then they give correct answers. We then demonstrate that for many of the typical workshop examples, the procedures do terminate and thus provide an automatic way for verifying their properties. 1 Introduction More and...
Parametric realtime reasoning
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 25TH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING
, 1993
"... Traditional approaches to the algorithmic verification of realtime systems are limited to checking program correctness with respect to concrete timing properties (e.g., "message delivery within 10 milliseconds"). We address the more realistic and more ambitious problem of deriving symboli ..."
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Cited by 146 (6 self)
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Traditional approaches to the algorithmic verification of realtime systems are limited to checking program correctness with respect to concrete timing properties (e.g., "message delivery within 10 milliseconds"). We address the more realistic and more ambitious problem of deriving symbolic constraints on the timing properties required of realtime systems (e.g., "message delivery within the time it takes to execute two assignment statements"). To model this problem, we introduce parametric timed automata  finitestate machines whose transitions are constrained with parametric timing requirements. The emptiness question for parametric timed automata is central to the verification problem. On the negative side, we show that in general this question is undecidable. On the positive side, we provide algorithms for checking the emptiness of restricted classes of parametric timed automata. The practical relevance of these classes is illustrated with several verification examples. There remains a gap between the automata classes for which we know that emptiness is decidable and undecidable, respectively, and this gap is related to various hard and open problems of logic and automata theory.