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519
Towards the Digital Music Library: Tune Retrieval From . . .
, 1996
"... Music is traditionally retrieved by title, composer or subject classification. It is possible, with current technology, to retrieve music from a database on the basis of a few notes sung or hummed into a microphone. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, and discusses several issu ..."
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Cited by 109 (11 self)
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Music is traditionally retrieved by title, composer or subject classification. It is possible, with current technology, to retrieve music from a database on the basis of a few notes sung or hummed into a microphone. This paper describes the implementation of such a system, and discusses several issues pertaining to music retrieval. We first describe an interface that transcribes acoustic input into standard music notation. We then analyze string matching requirements for ranked retrieval of music and present the results of an experiment which tests how accurately people sing well known melodies. The performance of several string matching criteria are analyzed using two folk song databases. Finally, we describe a prototype system which has been developed for retrieval of tunes from acoustic input.
Identifying the Semantic and Textual Differences Between Two Versions of a Program
 Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 90 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
, 1990
"... Textbased file comparators (e.g., the Unix utility diff), are very general tools that can be applied to arbitrary files. However, using such tools to compare programs can be unsatisfactory because their only notion of change is based on program text rather than program behavior. This paper describe ..."
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Cited by 97 (6 self)
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Textbased file comparators (e.g., the Unix utility diff), are very general tools that can be applied to arbitrary files. However, using such tools to compare programs can be unsatisfactory because their only notion of change is based on program text rather than program behavior. This paper describes a technique for comparing two versions of a program, determining which program components represent changes, and classifying each changed component as representing either a semantic or a textual change. ######################## This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, monitored by the Office of Naval Research under contract N0001488K, by the National Science Foundation under grant CCR8958530, and by grants from Xerox, Kodak, and Cray. Author's address: Computer Sciences Department, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1210 W. Dayton St., Madison, WI 53706. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made...
On aligning curves
 IEEE TPAMI
, 2003
"... We present a novel approach to finding a correspondence (alignment) between two curves. The correspondence is based on a notion of an alignment curve which treats both curves symmetrically. We then define a similarity metric based on the alignment curve using two intrinsic properties of the curve, ..."
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Cited by 94 (3 self)
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We present a novel approach to finding a correspondence (alignment) between two curves. The correspondence is based on a notion of an alignment curve which treats both curves symmetrically. We then define a similarity metric based on the alignment curve using two intrinsic properties of the curve, namely, length and curvature. The optimal correspondence is found by an efficient dynamicprogramming method both for aligning pairs of curve segments and pairs of closed curves, and is effective in the presence of a variety of transformations of the curve. Finally, the correspondence is shown in application to handwritten character recognition, prototype formation, and object recognition, and is potentially useful in other applications such as registration and tracking.
Computing the editdistance between unrooted ordered trees
 In Proceedings of the 6th annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA
, 1998
"... Abstract. An ordered tree is a tree in which each node’s incident edges are cyclically ordered; think of the tree as being embedded in the plane. Let A and B be two ordered trees. The edit distance between A and B is the minimum cost of a sequence of operations (contract an edge, uncontract an edge, ..."
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Cited by 82 (0 self)
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Abstract. An ordered tree is a tree in which each node’s incident edges are cyclically ordered; think of the tree as being embedded in the plane. Let A and B be two ordered trees. The edit distance between A and B is the minimum cost of a sequence of operations (contract an edge, uncontract an edge, modify the label of an edge) needed to transform A into B. WegiveanO(n 3 log n) algorithm to compute the edit distance between two ordered trees. 1
Identifying Syntactic Differences Between Two Programs
 Software  Practice and Experience
, 1991
"... this paper is organized into five sections, as follows. The internal form of a program, which is a variant of a parse tree, is discussed in the next section. Then the treematching algorithm and the synchronous prettyprinting technique are described. Experience with the comparator for the C languag ..."
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Cited by 80 (0 self)
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this paper is organized into five sections, as follows. The internal form of a program, which is a variant of a parse tree, is discussed in the next section. Then the treematching algorithm and the synchronous prettyprinting technique are described. Experience with the comparator for the C language and some performance measurements are also presented. The last section discusses related work and concludes this paper
On the Editing Distance between Undirected Acyclic Graphs
, 1995
"... We consider the problem of comparing CUAL graphs (Connected, Undirected, Acyclic graphs with nodes being Labeled). This problem is motivated by the study of information retrieval for biochemical and molecular databases. Suppose we define the distance between two CUAL graphs G1 and G2 to be the weig ..."
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Cited by 76 (7 self)
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We consider the problem of comparing CUAL graphs (Connected, Undirected, Acyclic graphs with nodes being Labeled). This problem is motivated by the study of information retrieval for biochemical and molecular databases. Suppose we define the distance between two CUAL graphs G1 and G2 to be the weighted number of edit operations (insert node, delete node and relabel node) to transform G1 to G2. By reduction from exact cover by 3sets, one can show that finding the distance between two CUAL graphs is NPcomplete. In view of the hardness of the problem, we propose a constrained distance metric, called the degree2 distance, by requiring that any node to be inserted (deleted) have no more than 2 neighbors. With this metric, we present an efficient algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm runs in time O(N_1 N_2 D²) for general weighting edit operations and in time O(N_1 N_2 D √D log D) for integral weighting edit operations, where N_i, i = 1, 2, is the number of nodes in G_i, D = min{d_1, d_2} and d_i is the maximum degree of G_i.
Automatic Evaluation and Uniform Filter Cascades for Inducing NBest Translation Lexicons
 In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Very Large Corpora
, 1995
"... This paper shows how to induce an Nbest translation lexicon from a bilingual text corpus using statistical properties of the corpus together with four external knowledge sources. The knowledge sources are cast as filters, so that any subset of them can be cascaded in a uniform framework. A new o ..."
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Cited by 69 (20 self)
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This paper shows how to induce an Nbest translation lexicon from a bilingual text corpus using statistical properties of the corpus together with four external knowledge sources. The knowledge sources are cast as filters, so that any subset of them can be cascaded in a uniform framework. A new objective evaluation measure is used to compare the quality of lexicons induced with different filter cascades. The best filter cascades improve lexicon quality by up to 137% over the plain vanilla statistical method, and approach human performance. Drastically reducing the size of the training corpus has a much smaller impact on lexicon quality when these knowledge sources are used. This makes it practical to train on small handbuilt corpora for language pairs where large bilingual corpora are unavailable. Moreover, three of the four filters prove useful even when used with large training corpora.
Bounds on the complexity of the longest common subsequence problem
 Journal of the ACM
, 1976
"... ABSTRACT The problem of finding a longest common subsequence of two strings is discussed This problem arises in data processing applications such as comparing two files and in genetic applications such as studying molecular evolution The ddlqculty of computing a longest common subsequence of two str ..."
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Cited by 63 (1 self)
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ABSTRACT The problem of finding a longest common subsequence of two strings is discussed This problem arises in data processing applications such as comparing two files and in genetic applications such as studying molecular evolution The ddlqculty of computing a longest common subsequence of two strings IS examined using the decision tree model of computation, m which vertices represent "equalunequal " comparisons It IS shown that unless a bound on the total number of 0istmct symbols is assumed, every solution to the problem can consume an amount of time that is proportional to the product of the lengths of the two strings A general lower bound as a function of the ratio of alphabet size to string length is derived The case where comparisons between symbols of the same string are forbidden is also considered and it is shown that this problem is of linear complexity for a twosymbol alphabet and quadratic for an alphabet of three or more symbols KEY WORDS AND PHR~tSES longest common subsequence, algorithm, computational complexity, file comparison, molecular evolution CR CATEGORIES 3 12, 3 73, 5 25 1.
A file comparison program
 Software: Practice and Experience
, 1985
"... This paper presents a simple method for computing a shortest sequence of insertion and deletion commands that converts one given file to another. The method is particularly efficient when the difference between the two files is small compared to the files ' lengths. In experiments performed on typic ..."
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Cited by 59 (3 self)
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This paper presents a simple method for computing a shortest sequence of insertion and deletion commands that converts one given file to another. The method is particularly efficient when the difference between the two files is small compared to the files ' lengths. In experiments performed on typical files, the program often ran four times faster than the UNIX diff command. KEY WORDS Edit distance Edit script Filc comparison
Approximate string matching over suffix trees
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON COMBINATORIAL PATTERN MATCHING, NUMBER 684 IN LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1993
"... The classical approximate stringmatching problem of finding the locations of approximate occurrences P 0 of pattern string P in text string T such that the edit distance between P and P 0 is k is considered. We concentrate on the special case in which T is available for preprocessing before the se ..."
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Cited by 55 (1 self)
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The classical approximate stringmatching problem of finding the locations of approximate occurrences P 0 of pattern string P in text string T such that the edit distance between P and P 0 is k is considered. We concentrate on the special case in which T is available for preprocessing before the searches with varying P and k. It is shown how the searches can be done fast using the suffix tree of T augmented with the suffix links as the preprocessed form of T and applying dynamic programming over the tree. Three variations of the search algorithm are developed with running times O(mq + n), O(mq log q + size of the output), and O(m