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Low Complexity Bit Parallel Architectures for Polynomial Basis Multiplication over GF(2 m)
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS
, 2004
"... Representing the field elements with respect to the polynomial (or standard) basis, we consider bit parallel architectures for multiplication over the finite field GFð2 m Þ. In this effect, first we derive a new formulation for polynomial basis multiplication in terms of the reduction matrix Q. The ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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Representing the field elements with respect to the polynomial (or standard) basis, we consider bit parallel architectures for multiplication over the finite field GFð2 m Þ. In this effect, first we derive a new formulation for polynomial basis multiplication in terms of the reduction matrix Q. The main advantage of this new formulation is that it can be used with any field defining irreducible polynomial. Using this formulation, we then develop a generalized architecture for the multiplier and analyze the time and gate complexities of the proposed multiplier as a function of degree m and the reduction matrix Q. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these complexities are given in terms of Q. Unlike most other articles on bit parallel finite field multipliers, here we also consider the number of signals to be routed in hardware implementation and we show that, compared to the wellknown Mastrovito’s multiplier, the proposed architecture has fewer routed signals. In this article, the proposed generalized architecture is further optimized for three special types of polynomials, namely, equally spaced polynomials, trinomials, and pentanomials. We have obtained explicit formulas and complexities of the multipliers for these three special irreducible polynomials. This makes it very easy for a designer to implement the proposed multipliers using hardware description languages like VHDL and Verilog with minimum knowledge of finite field arithmetic.
A generalized method for constructing subquadratic complexity GF(2 k ) multipliers
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 2004
"... We introduce a generalized method for constructing subquadratic complexity multipliers for even characteristic field extensions. The construction is obtained by recursively extending short convolution algorithms and nesting them. To obtain the short convolution algorithms the Winograd short convolu ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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We introduce a generalized method for constructing subquadratic complexity multipliers for even characteristic field extensions. The construction is obtained by recursively extending short convolution algorithms and nesting them. To obtain the short convolution algorithms the Winograd short convolution algorithm is reintroduced and analyzed in the context of polynomial multiplication. We present a recursive construction technique that extends any d point multiplier into an n = d k point multiplier with area that is subquadratic and delay that is logarithmic in the bitlength n. We present a thorough analysis that establishes the exact space and time complexities of these multipliers. Using the recursive construction method we obtain six new constructions, among which one turns out to be identical to the Karatsuba multiplier. All six algorithms have subquadratic space complexities and two of the algorithms have significantly better time complexities than the Karatsuba algorithm. Keywords: Bitparallel multipliers, finite fields, Winograd convolution 1
A New Approach to Subquadratic Space Complexity Parallel Multipliers for Extended Binary Fields
 IEEE Trans. Computers
, 2007
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Mastrovito multiplier for general irreducible polynomials
 IEEE Transactions on Computers
, 2000
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Parallel Multipliers Based on Special Irreducible Pentanomials
 IEEE Trans on Computers
, 2003
"... Abstract—The stateoftheart Galois field GFð2 m Þ multipliers offer advantageous space and time complexities when the field is generated by some special irreducible polynomial. To date, the best complexity results have been obtained when the irreducible polynomial is either a trinomial or an equal ..."
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Abstract—The stateoftheart Galois field GFð2 m Þ multipliers offer advantageous space and time complexities when the field is generated by some special irreducible polynomial. To date, the best complexity results have been obtained when the irreducible polynomial is either a trinomial or an equally spaced polynomial (ESP). Unfortunately, there exist only a few irreducible ESPs in the range of interest for most of the applications, e.g., errorcorrecting codes, computer algebra, and elliptic curve cryptography. Furthermore, it is not always possible to find an irreducible trinomial of degree m in this range. For those cases where neither an irreducible trinomial nor an irreducible ESP exists, the use of irreducible pentanomials has been suggested. Irreducible pentanomials are abundant, and there are several eligible candidates for a given m. In this paper, we promote the use of two special types of irreducible pentanomials. We propose new Mastrovito and dual basis multiplier architectures based on these special irreducible pentanomials and give rigorous analyses of their space and time complexity. Index Terms—Finite fields arithmetic, parallel multipliers, pentanomials, multipliers for GFð2 m Þ. æ
A new combinational logic minimization technique with applications to cryptology
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2010
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Reconfigurable implementation of elliptic curve crypto algorithms
 Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium., Proceedings International, IPDPS 2002, Abstracts and CDROM
, 2002
"... For FPGA based coprocessors for elliptic curve cryptography, a significant performance gain can be achieved when hybrid coordinates are used to represent points on the elliptic curve. We provide a new area/performance tradeoff analysis of different hybrid representations over fields of characteris ..."
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For FPGA based coprocessors for elliptic curve cryptography, a significant performance gain can be achieved when hybrid coordinates are used to represent points on the elliptic curve. We provide a new area/performance tradeoff analysis of different hybrid representations over fields of characteristic two. Moreover, we present a new generic cryptoprocessor architecture that can be adapted to various area/performance constraints and finite field sizes, and show how to apply high level synthesis techniques to the controller design. 1
Tradeoff Analysis of FPGA Based Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems
 In Proceedings of The IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS
"... FPGAs are an attractive platform for elliptic curve cryptography hardware. Since field multiplication is the most critical operation in elliptic curve cryptography, we have studied how efficient several field multipliers can be mapped to lookup table based FPGAs. Furthermore we have compared differ ..."
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FPGAs are an attractive platform for elliptic curve cryptography hardware. Since field multiplication is the most critical operation in elliptic curve cryptography, we have studied how efficient several field multipliers can be mapped to lookup table based FPGAs. Furthermore we have compared different curve coordinate representations with respect to the number of required field operations, and show how an elliptic curve coprocessor based on the Montgomery algorithm for curve multiplication can be implemented using our generic coprocessor architecture. 1.
Parallel Montgomery Multiplication in GF(2 k ) Using Trinomial Residue Arithmetic
 In 17th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic (ARITH05
, 2005
"... We propose the first general multiplication algorithm in GF(2 k) with a subquadratic area complexity of O(k 8/5) = O(k 1.6). Using the Chinese Remainder Theorem, we represent the elements of GF(2 k); i.e. the polynomials in GF(2)[X] of degree at most k − 1, by their remainder modulo a set of n pair ..."
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We propose the first general multiplication algorithm in GF(2 k) with a subquadratic area complexity of O(k 8/5) = O(k 1.6). Using the Chinese Remainder Theorem, we represent the elements of GF(2 k); i.e. the polynomials in GF(2)[X] of degree at most k − 1, by their remainder modulo a set of n pairwise prime trinomials, T1,..., Tn, of degree d and such that nd ≥ k. Our algorithm is based on Montgomery’s multiplication applied to the ring formed by the direct product of the trinomials.
1 Block Recombination Approach for Subquadratic Space Complexity Binary Field Multiplication based on Toeplitz MatrixVector Product
"... In this paper, we present a new method for parallel binary finite field multiplication which results in subquadratic space complexity. The method is based on decomposing the building blocks of FanHasan subquadratic Toeplitz matrixvector multiplier. We reduce the space complexity of their architect ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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In this paper, we present a new method for parallel binary finite field multiplication which results in subquadratic space complexity. The method is based on decomposing the building blocks of FanHasan subquadratic Toeplitz matrixvector multiplier. We reduce the space complexity of their architecture by recombining the building blocks. In comparison to other similar schemes available in the literature, our proposal presents a better space complexity while having the same time complexity. We also show that block recombination can be used for efficient implementation of the GHASH function of Galois Counter Mode (GCM).