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132
A Practical Model for Subsurface Light Transport
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a simple model for subsurface light transport in translucent materials. The model enables efficient simulation of effects that BRDF models cannot capture, such as color bleeding within materials and diffusion of light across shadow boundaries. The technique is efficient even fo ..."
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Cited by 310 (22 self)
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This paper introduces a simple model for subsurface light transport in translucent materials. The model enables efficient simulation of effects that BRDF models cannot capture, such as color bleeding within materials and diffusion of light across shadow boundaries. The technique is efficient even for anisotropic, highly scattering media that are expensive to simulate using existing methods. The model combines an exact solution for single scattering with a dipole point source diffusion approximation for multiple scattering. We also have designed a new, rapid imagebased measurement technique for determining the optical properties of translucent materials. We validate the model by comparing predicted and measured values and show how the technique can be used to recover the optical properties of a variety of materials, including milk, marble, and skin. Finally, we describe sampling techniques that allow the model to be used within a conventional ray tracer.
Optical models for direct volume rendering
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1995
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Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering
, 1993
"... The reflection of light from most materials consists of two major terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles by considering a rough surface consisting of perfect reflectors, or microfacets. Diffuse reflection is generally considered to result from ..."
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Cited by 222 (4 self)
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The reflection of light from most materials consists of two major terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles by considering a rough surface consisting of perfect reflectors, or microfacets. Diffuse reflection is generally considered to result from multiple scattering either from a rough surface or from within a layer near the surface. Accounting for diffuse reflection by Lambert's Cosine Law, as is universally done in computer graphics, is not a physical theory based on first principles. This paper presents
Physically Based Modeling and Animation of Fire
, 2002
"... We present a physically based method for modeling and animating fire. Our method is suitable for both smooth (laminar) and turbulent flames, and it can be used to animate the burning of either solid or gas fuels. We use the incompressible NavierStokes equations to independently model both vaporized ..."
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Cited by 126 (13 self)
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We present a physically based method for modeling and animating fire. Our method is suitable for both smooth (laminar) and turbulent flames, and it can be used to animate the burning of either solid or gas fuels. We use the incompressible NavierStokes equations to independently model both vaporized fuel and hot gaseous products. We develop a physically based model for the expansion that takes place when a vaporized fuel reacts to form hot gaseous products, and a related model for the similar expansion that takes place when a solid fuel is vaporized into a gaseous state. The hot gaseous products, smoke and soot rise under the influence of buoyancy and are rendered using a blackbody radiation model. We also model and render the blue core that results from radicals in the chemical reaction zone where fuel is converted into products. Our method allows the fire and smoke to interact with objects, and flammable objects can catch on fire.
Modeling and Rendering of Weathered Stone
 SIGGRAPH'99
, 1999
"... Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes appearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric effects such as erosion and mineral diss ..."
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Cited by 106 (11 self)
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Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes appearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric effects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and rendering of changes in the shape and appearance of stone. To represent stone, we introduce a slab data structure, which is a surfacealigned volume confined to a narrow region around the boundary of the stone. Our weathering model employs a simulation of the flow of moisture and the transport, dissolution, and recrystallization of minerals within the porous stone volume. In addition, this model governs the erosion of material from the surface. To render the optical effects of translucency and coloration due to the composition of minerals near the surface, we simulate the scattering of light inside the stone using a general subsurface Monte Carlo ray tracer. These techniques can capture many aspects of the timedependent appearance of stone. We demonstrate the approach with models of granite and marble statues, as well as a sandstone column.
A Rapid Hierarchical Rendering Technique for Translucent Materials
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2002
"... This paper introduces an efficient twopass rendering technique for translucent materials. We decouple the computation of irradiance at the surface from the evaluation of scattering inside the material. This is done by splitting the evaluation into two passes, where the first pass consists of comput ..."
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Cited by 103 (4 self)
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This paper introduces an efficient twopass rendering technique for translucent materials. We decouple the computation of irradiance at the surface from the evaluation of scattering inside the material. This is done by splitting the evaluation into two passes, where the first pass consists of computing the irradiance at selected points on the surface. The second pass uses a rapid hierarchical integration technique to evaluate a diffusion approximation based on the irradiance samples. This approach is substantially faster than previous methods for rendering translucent materials, and it has the advantage that it integrates seamlessly with both scanline rendering and global illumination methods. We show several images and animations from our implementation that demonstrate that the approach is both fast and robust, making it suitable for rendering translucent materials in production.
Parameterizations of reflectance and effective emittance for satellite remote sensing of cloud properties
 J. Atmos. Sci
, 1998
"... The interpretation of satelliteobserved radiances to derive cloud optical depth and effective particle size requires radiative transfer calculations relating these parameters to the reflectance, transmittance, and emittance of the cloud. Such computations can be extremely time consuming when used i ..."
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Cited by 84 (55 self)
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The interpretation of satelliteobserved radiances to derive cloud optical depth and effective particle size requires radiative transfer calculations relating these parameters to the reflectance, transmittance, and emittance of the cloud. Such computations can be extremely time consuming when used in an operational mode to analyze routine satellite data. Adding–doubling (AD) radiative transfer models are used here to compute reflectance and effective emittance at wavelengths commonly used by operational meteorological satellite imagers for droplet effective radii ranging from 2 to 32 mm and for distributions of randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals with effective diameters varying from 6 to 135 mm. Cloud reflectance lookup tables were generated at the typical visiblechannel wavelength of 0.65 mm and the solar–infrared (SI) at wavelengths of 3.75 and 3.90 mm. A combination of fourpoint Lagrangian and linear interpolation between the model nodal points is the most accurate and economical method for estimating reflectance as a function of particle size for any set of solar zenith, viewing zenith, and relative azimuth angles. Compared to exact AD calculations, the fourpoint method retrieves the reflectance to within 63%–9 % for water droplets and ice crystals, respectively. Most of the error is confined to scattering angles near distinct features in the phase functions. The errors are reduced to;62 % for ice when the assessment is constrained to only those angles that are actually useful in satellite retrievals. Effective
Efficient Light Propagation for Multiple Anisotropic Volume Scattering
 In Proceedings of the 5th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering
, 1994
"... Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the "ray effect" problem in the traditional "discrete ordinates" method. ..."
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Cited by 69 (6 self)
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Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the "ray effect" problem in the traditional "discrete ordinates" method. For a regular grid volume of n 3 elements, it takes O(M n 3 log n + M 2 n 3 ) time and O(M n 3 + M 2 ) space. This document is reprinted from the proceedings of the Fifth Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, Darmstadt, Germany, June 13  15, 1994 1. Introduction To render realistic images of clouds, one must take into account absorption and multiple scattering of incoming illumination. In addition, to produce the bright edges surrounding a cloud when the sun is behind it, one must account for the anisotropic, mainly forward, scattering of light from the water droplets. In 1984, Jim Kajiya and Brian Von Herzen [Kaj84] proposed two methods for rendering clouds. The first was the twopass "slab" me...
Eikonal rendering: efficient light transport in refractive objects
 ACM Transactions on Graphics
, 2007
"... Figure 1: Realtime renderings of complex refractive objects – (left) glass with red wine casting a colorful caustic, 24.8 fps. (middle) Amberlike bunny with black embeddings showing anisotropic scattering and volume caustics in the surrounding smoke and its interior, 13.0 fps. (right) Rounded cube ..."
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Cited by 37 (6 self)
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Figure 1: Realtime renderings of complex refractive objects – (left) glass with red wine casting a colorful caustic, 24.8 fps. (middle) Amberlike bunny with black embeddings showing anisotropic scattering and volume caustics in the surrounding smoke and its interior, 13.0 fps. (right) Rounded cube composed of three differently colored and differently refracting kinds of glass showing scattering effects and caustics in its interior, 6.4 fps. We present a new method for realtime rendering of sophisticated lighting effects in and around refractive objects. It enables us to realistically display refractive objects with complex material properties, such as arbitrarily varying refractive index, inhomogeneous attenuation, as well as spatiallyvarying anisotropic scattering and reflectance properties. Usercontrolled changes of lighting positions only require a few seconds of update time. Our method is based on a set of ordinary differential equations derived from the eikonal equation, the main postulate of geometric optics. This set of equations allows for fast casting of bent light rays with the complexity of a particle tracer. Based on this concept, we also propose an efficient light propagation technique using adaptive wavefront tracing. Efficient GPU implementations for our algorithmic concepts enable us to render a combination of visual effects that were previously not reproducible in realtime.