Results 1  10
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150
Approximate distance oracles
 J. ACM
"... Let G = (V, E) be an undirected weighted graph with V  = n and E  = m. Let k ≥ 1 be an integer. We show that G = (V, E) can be preprocessed in O(kmn 1/k) expected time, constructing a data structure of size O(kn 1+1/k), such that any subsequent distance query can be answered, approximately, in ..."
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Cited by 205 (8 self)
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Let G = (V, E) be an undirected weighted graph with V  = n and E  = m. Let k ≥ 1 be an integer. We show that G = (V, E) can be preprocessed in O(kmn 1/k) expected time, constructing a data structure of size O(kn 1+1/k), such that any subsequent distance query can be answered, approximately, in O(k) time. The approximate distance returned is of stretch at most 2k − 1, i.e., the quotient obtained by dividing the estimated distance by the actual distance lies between 1 and 2k−1. A 1963 girth conjecture of Erdős, implies that Ω(n 1+1/k) space is needed in the worst case for any real stretch strictly smaller than 2k + 1. The space requirement of our algorithm is, therefore, essentially optimal. The most impressive feature of our data structure is its constant query time, hence the name “oracle”. Previously, data structures that used only O(n 1+1/k) space had a query time of Ω(n 1/k). Our algorithms are extremely simple and easy to implement efficiently. They also provide faster constructions of sparse spanners of weighted graphs, and improved tree covers and distance labelings of weighted or unweighted graphs. 1
Distributed Object Location in a Dynamic Network
, 2004
"... Modern networking applications replicate data and services widely, leading to a need for locationindependent routingthe ability to route queries to objects using names independent of the objects' physical locations. Two important properties of such a routing infrastructure are routing locality a ..."
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Cited by 167 (16 self)
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Modern networking applications replicate data and services widely, leading to a need for locationindependent routingthe ability to route queries to objects using names independent of the objects' physical locations. Two important properties of such a routing infrastructure are routing locality and rapid adaptation to arriving and departing nodes. We show how these two properties can be efficiently achieved for certain network topologies. To do this, we present a new distributed algorithm that can solve the nearestneighbor problem for these networks. We describe our solution in the context of Tapestry, an overlay network infrastructure that employs techniques proposed by Plaxton et al. [24].
NIRA: A New Internet Routing Architecture
, 2003
"... This paper presents the design of a new Internet routing architecture (NIRA). In today’s Internet, users can pick their own ISPs, but once the packets have entered the network, the users have no control over the overall routes their packets take. NIRA aims at providing end users the ability to choos ..."
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Cited by 105 (1 self)
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This paper presents the design of a new Internet routing architecture (NIRA). In today’s Internet, users can pick their own ISPs, but once the packets have entered the network, the users have no control over the overall routes their packets take. NIRA aims at providing end users the ability to choose the sequence of Internet service providers a packet traverses. User choice fosters competition, which imposes an economic discipline on the market, and fosters innovation and the introduction of new services. This paper explores various technical problems that would have to be solved to give users the ability to choose: how a user discovers routes and whether the dynamic conditions of the routes satisfy his requirements, how to efficiently represent routes, and how to properly compensate providers if a user chooses to use them. In particular, NIRA utilizes a hierarchical providerrooted addressing scheme so that a common type of domainlevel route can be efficiently represented by a pair of addresses. In NIRA, each user keeps track of the topology information on domains that provide transit service for him. A source retrieves the topology information of the destination on demand and combines this information with his own to discover endtoend routes. This route discovery process ensures that each user does not need to know the complete topology of the Internet.
Gem: graph embedding for routing and datacentric storage in sensor networks without geographic information
, 2003
"... Information ..."
Labeling Dynamic XML Trees
, 2002
"... We present algorithms to label the nodes of an XML tree which is subject to insertions and deletions of nodes. The labeling is done such that (1) we label each node immediately when it is inserted and this label remains unchanged, and (2) from a pair of labels alone, we can decide whether one node ..."
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Cited by 87 (2 self)
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We present algorithms to label the nodes of an XML tree which is subject to insertions and deletions of nodes. The labeling is done such that (1) we label each node immediately when it is inserted and this label remains unchanged, and (2) from a pair of labels alone, we can decide whether one node is an ancestor of the other. This problem arises in the context of XML databases that support queries on the structure of the documents as well as on the changes made to the documents over time. We prove that our algorithms assign the shortest possible labels (up to a constant factor) which satisfy these requirements. We also consider the same problem when "clues " that provide guarantees on possible future insertions are given together with newly inserted nodes. Such clues can be derived from the DTD or from statistics on similar XML trees. We present algorithms that use the clues to assign shorter labels. We also prove that the length of our labels is close to the minimum possible.
Nearest Common Ancestors: A survey and a new distributed algorithm
, 2002
"... Several papers describe linear time algorithms to preprocess a tree, such that one can answer subsequent nearest common ancestor queries in constant time. Here, we survey these algorithms and related results. A common idea used by all the algorithms for the problem is that a solution for complete ba ..."
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Cited by 76 (12 self)
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Several papers describe linear time algorithms to preprocess a tree, such that one can answer subsequent nearest common ancestor queries in constant time. Here, we survey these algorithms and related results. A common idea used by all the algorithms for the problem is that a solution for complete balanced binary trees is straightforward. Furthermore, for complete balanced binary trees we can easily solve the problem in a distributed way by labeling the nodes of the tree such that from the labels of two nodes alone one can compute the label of their nearest common ancestor. Whether it is possible to distribute the data structure into short labels associated with the nodes is important for several applications such as routing. Therefore, related labeling problems have received a lot of attention recently.
Compact and Localized Distributed Data Structures
 JOURNAL OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
, 2001
"... This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sou ..."
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Cited by 71 (26 self)
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This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sought information involves only a small and local set of entities. In contrast, localized data representation schemes are based on breaking the information into small local pieces, or labels, selected in a way that allows one to infer information regarding a small set of entities directly from their labels, without using any additional (global) information. The survey focuses on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques, and covers complexity results on various applications, including compact localized schemes for message routing in communication networks, and adjacency and distance labeling schemes.
Compact NameIndependent Routing with Minimum Stretch
 In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA 2004
, 2004
"... Given a weighted undirected network with arbitrary node names, we present a compact routing scheme, using a O(√n) space routing table at each node, and routing along paths of stretch 3, that is, at most thrice as long as the shortest paths. This is optimal in a very strong sense. It is known t ..."
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Cited by 64 (12 self)
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Given a weighted undirected network with arbitrary node names, we present a compact routing scheme, using a O(√n) space routing table at each node, and routing along paths of stretch 3, that is, at most thrice as long as the shortest paths. This is optimal in a very strong sense. It is known that no compact routing using o(n) space per node can route with stretch below 3. Also, it is known that any stretch below 5 requires Ω(√n) space per node.
Distance Estimation and Object Location via Rings of Neighbors
 In 24 th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC
, 2005
"... We consider four problems on distance estimation and object location which share the common flavor of capturing global information via informative node labels: lowstretch routing schemes [47], distance labeling [24], searchable small worlds [30], and triangulationbased distance estimation [33]. Fo ..."
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Cited by 64 (4 self)
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We consider four problems on distance estimation and object location which share the common flavor of capturing global information via informative node labels: lowstretch routing schemes [47], distance labeling [24], searchable small worlds [30], and triangulationbased distance estimation [33]. Focusing on metrics of low doubling dimension, we approach these problems with a common technique called rings of neighbors, which refers to a sparse distributed data structure that underlies all our constructions. Apart from improving the previously known bounds for these problems, our contributions include extending Kleinberg’s small world model to doubling metrics, and a short proof of the main result in Chan et al. [14]. Doubling dimension is a notion of dimensionality for general metrics that has recently become a useful algorithmic concept in the theoretical computer science literature. 1
Bypassing the embedding: Algorithms for lowdimensional metrics
 In Proceedings of the 36th ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (STOC
, 2004
"... The doubling dimension of a metric is the smallest k such that any ball of radius 2r can be covered using 2 k balls of radius r. This concept for abstract metrics has been proposed as a natural analog to the dimension of a Euclidean space. If we could embed metrics with low doubling dimension into l ..."
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Cited by 64 (4 self)
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The doubling dimension of a metric is the smallest k such that any ball of radius 2r can be covered using 2 k balls of radius r. This concept for abstract metrics has been proposed as a natural analog to the dimension of a Euclidean space. If we could embed metrics with low doubling dimension into low dimensional Euclidean spaces, they would inherit several algorithmic and structural properties of the Euclidean spaces. Unfortunately however, such a restriction on dimension does not suffice to guarantee embeddibility in a normed space. In this paper we explore the option of bypassing the embedding. In particular we show the following for low dimensional metrics: • Quasipolynomial time (1+ɛ)approximation algorithm for various optimization problems such as TSP, kmedian and facility location. • (1 + ɛ)approximate distance labeling scheme with optimal label length. • (1+ɛ)stretch polylogarithmic storage routing scheme.