Results 1  10
of
27
A unified Bayesian framework for MEG/EEG source imaging
 Neuroimage
, 2009
"... The illposed nature of the MEG (or related EEG) source localization problem requires the incorporation of prior assumptions when choosing an appropriate solution out of an infinite set of candidates. Bayesian approaches are useful in this capacity because they allow these assumptions to be explicit ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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The illposed nature of the MEG (or related EEG) source localization problem requires the incorporation of prior assumptions when choosing an appropriate solution out of an infinite set of candidates. Bayesian approaches are useful in this capacity because they allow these assumptions to be explicitly quantified using postulated prior distributions. However, the means by which these priors are chosen, as well as the estimation and inference procedures that are subsequently adopted to affect localization, have led to a daunting array of algorithms with seemingly very different properties and assumptions. From the vantage point of a simple Gaussian scale mixture model with flexible covariance components, this paper analyzes and extends several broad categories of Bayesian inference directly applicable to source localization including empirical Bayesian approaches, standard MAP estimation, and multiple variational Bayesian (VB) approximations. Theoretical properties related to convergence, global and local minima, and localization bias are analyzed and fast algorithms are derived that improve upon existing methods. This perspective leads to explicit connections between many established algorithms and suggests natural extensions for handling unknown dipole orientations, extended source configurations, correlated sources, temporal smoothness, and computational expediency. Specific imaging methods elucidated under this paradigm include weighted minimum ℓ2norm, FOCUSS, MCE, VESTAL, sLORETA, ReML and covariance component estimation, beamforming, variational Bayes, the Laplace approximation, and automatic relevance determination (ARD). Perhaps surprisingly, all of these methods can be formulated as particular cases of covariance component estimation using different concave regularization terms and optimization rules, making general theoretical analyses and algorithmic extensions/improvements particularly relevant. I.
Dynamic causal modelling of induced responses
 NeuroImage
, 2008
"... This paper describes a dynamic causal model (DCM) for induced or spectral responses as measured with the electroencephalogram (EEG) or the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). We model the timevarying power, over a range of frequencies, as the response of a distributed system of coupled electromagnetic sour ..."
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Cited by 13 (4 self)
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This paper describes a dynamic causal model (DCM) for induced or spectral responses as measured with the electroencephalogram (EEG) or the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). We model the timevarying power, over a range of frequencies, as the response of a distributed system of coupled electromagnetic sources to a spectral perturbation. The model parameters encode the frequency response to exogenous input and coupling among sources and different frequencies. The Bayesian inversion of this model, given data enables inferences about the parameters of a particular model and allows us to compare different models, or hypotheses. One key aspect of the model is that it differentiates between linear and nonlinear coupling; which correspond to within and betweenfrequency coupling respectively. To establish the face validity of our approach, we generate synthetic data and test the identifiability of various parameters to ensure they can be estimated accurately, under different levels of noise. We then apply our model to EEG data from a faceperception experiment, to ask whether there is evidence for nonlinear coupling between early visual cortex and fusiform areas.
Analysis of empirical Bayesian methods for neuroelectromagnetic source localization
 Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 19
, 2007
"... The illposed nature of the MEG/EEG source localization problem requires the incorporation of prior assumptions when choosing an appropriate solution out of an infinite set of candidates. Bayesian methods are useful in this capacity because they allow these assumptions to be explicitly quantified. R ..."
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Cited by 12 (5 self)
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The illposed nature of the MEG/EEG source localization problem requires the incorporation of prior assumptions when choosing an appropriate solution out of an infinite set of candidates. Bayesian methods are useful in this capacity because they allow these assumptions to be explicitly quantified. Recently, a number of empirical Bayesian approaches have been proposed that attempt a form of model selection by using the data to guide the search for an appropriate prior. While seemingly quite different in many respects, we apply a unifying framework based on automatic relevance determination (ARD) that elucidates various attributes of these methods and suggests directions for improvement. We also derive theoretical properties of this methodology related to convergence, local minima, and localization bias and explore connections with established algorithms. 1
Bayesian decoding of brain images
, 2008
"... This paper introduces a multivariate Bayesian (MVB) scheme to decode or recognise brain states from neuroimages. It resolves the illposed manytoone mapping, from voxel values or data features to a target variable, using a parametric empirical or hierarchical Bayesian model. This model is inverted ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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This paper introduces a multivariate Bayesian (MVB) scheme to decode or recognise brain states from neuroimages. It resolves the illposed manytoone mapping, from voxel values or data features to a target variable, using a parametric empirical or hierarchical Bayesian model. This model is inverted using standard variational techniques, in this case expectation maximisation, to furnish the model evidence and the conditional density of the model’s parameters. This allows one to compare different models or hypotheses about the mapping from functional or structural anatomy to perceptual and behavioural consequences (or their deficits). We frame this approach in terms of decoding measured brain states to predict or classify outcomes using the rhetoric established in pattern classification of neuroimaging data. However, the aim of MVB is not to predict (because the outcomes are known) but to enable inference on different models of structure– function mappings; such as distributed and sparse representations. This allows
Canonical Source Reconstruction for MEG
, 2007
"... We describe a simple and efficient solution to the problem of reconstructing electromagnetic sources into a canonical or standard anatomical space. Its simplicity rests upon incorporating subjectspecific anatomy into the forward model in a way that eschews the need for cortical surface extraction. ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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We describe a simple and efficient solution to the problem of reconstructing electromagnetic sources into a canonical or standard anatomical space. Its simplicity rests upon incorporating subjectspecific anatomy into the forward model in a way that eschews the need for cortical surface extraction. The forward model starts with a canonical cortical mesh, defined in a standard stereotactic space. The mesh is warped, in a nonlinear fashion, to match the subject’s anatomy. This warping is the inverse of the transformation derived from spatial normalization of the subject’s structural MRI image, using fully automated procedures that have been established for other imaging modalities. Electromagnetic lead fields are computed using the warped mesh, in conjunction with a spherical head model (which does not rely on individual anatomy). The ensuing forward model is inverted using an empirical Bayesian scheme that we have described previously in several publications. Critically, because anatomical information enters the forward model, there is no need to spatially normalize the reconstructed source activity. In other words, each source, comprising the mesh, has a predetermined and unique anatomical attribution within standard stereotactic space. This enables the pooling of data from multiple subjects and the reporting of results in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, it allows the graceful fusion of fMRI and MEG data within the same anatomical framework.
A probabilistic algorithm integrating source localization and noise suppression for MEG and EEG data
 NeuroImage
, 2007
"... We have developed a novel probabilistic model that estimates neural source activity measured by MEG and EEG data while suppressing the effect of interference and noise sources. The model estimates contributions to sensor data from evoked sources, interference sources and sensor noise using Bayesian ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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We have developed a novel probabilistic model that estimates neural source activity measured by MEG and EEG data while suppressing the effect of interference and noise sources. The model estimates contributions to sensor data from evoked sources, interference sources and sensor noise using Bayesian methods and by exploiting knowledge about their timing and spatial covariance properties. Full posterior distributions are computed rather than just the MAP estimates. In simulation, the algorithm can accurately localize and estimate the time courses of several simultaneously active dipoles, with rotating or fixed orientation, at noise levels typical for averaged MEG data. The algorithm even performs reasonably at noise levels typical of an average of just a few trials. The algorithm is superior to beamforming techniques, which we show to be an approximation to our graphical model, in estimation of temporally correlated sources. Success of this algorithm using MEG data for localizing bilateral auditory cortex, lowSNR somatosensory activations, and for localizing an epileptic spike source are also demonstrated.
A mesostatespace model for EEG and MEG
, 2007
"... We present a multiscale generative model for EEG, that entails a minimum number of assumptions about evoked brain responses, namely: (1) bioelectric activity is generated by a set of distributed sources, (2) the dynamics of these sources can be modelled as random fluctuations about a small number o ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We present a multiscale generative model for EEG, that entails a minimum number of assumptions about evoked brain responses, namely: (1) bioelectric activity is generated by a set of distributed sources, (2) the dynamics of these sources can be modelled as random fluctuations about a small number of mesostates, (3) mesostates evolve in a temporal structured way and are functionally connected (i.e. influence each other), and (4) the number of mesostates engaged by a cognitive task is small (e.g. between one and a few). A Variational Bayesian learning scheme is described that furnishes the posterior density on the models parameters and its evidence. Since the number of mesosources specifies the model, the model evidence can be used to compare models and find the optimum number of mesosources. In addition to estimating the dynamics at each cortical dipole, the mesostatespace model and its inversion provide a description of brain activity at the level of the mesostates (i.e. in terms of the dynamics of mesosources that are distributed over dipoles). The inclusion of a mesostate level allows one to compute posterior probability maps of each dipole being active (i.e. belonging to an active mesostate). Critically, this model accommodates constraints on the number of mesosources, while retaining the flexibility of distributed source models in explaining data. In short, it bridges the gap between standard distributed and equivalent current dipole models. Furthermore, because it is explicitly spatiotemporal, the model can embed any stochastic dynamical causal model (e.g. a neural mass model) as a Markov process prior on the mesostate dynamics. The approach is evaluated and compared to standard inverse EEG techniques, using synthetic data and real data. The results demonstrate the addedvalue of the mesostatespace model and its variational inversion.
Hearing Faces: How the Infant Brain Matches the Face It Sees with the Speech It Hears
"... & Speech is not a purely auditory signal. From around 2 months of age, infants are able to correctly match the vowel they hear with the appropriate articulating face. However, there is no behavioral evidence of integrated audiovisual perception until 4 months of age, at the earliest, when an illusor ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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& Speech is not a purely auditory signal. From around 2 months of age, infants are able to correctly match the vowel they hear with the appropriate articulating face. However, there is no behavioral evidence of integrated audiovisual perception until 4 months of age, at the earliest, when an illusory percept can be created by the fusion of the auditory stimulus and of the facial cues (McGurk effect). To understand how infants initially match the articulatory movements they see with the sounds they hear, we recorded highdensity ERPs in response to auditory vowels that followed a congruent or incongruent silently articulating face in 10weekold infants. In a first experiment, we determined that auditory–visual integration occurs during the early stages of perception as in adults. The mismatch response was similar in timing and in topography whether the preceding vowels were presented visually or aurally. In the second experiment, we studied audiovisual integration in the linguistic (vowel perception) and nonlinguistic (gender perception) domain. We observed a mismatch response for both types of change at similar latencies. Their topographies were significantly different demonstrating that crossmodal integration of these features is computed in parallel by two different networks. Indeed, brain source modeling revealed that phoneme and gender computations were lateralized toward the left and toward the right hemisphere, respectively, suggesting that each hemisphere possesses an early processing bias. We also observed repetition suppression in temporal regions and repetition enhancement in frontal regions. These results underscore how complex and structured is the human cortical organization which sustains communication from the first weeks of life on. &
Reviewed by:
, 2010
"... We suggested recently that attention can be understood as inferring the level of uncertainty or precision during hierarchical perception. In this paper, we try to substantiate this claim using neuronal simulations of directed spatial attention and biased competition. These simulations assume that ne ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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We suggested recently that attention can be understood as inferring the level of uncertainty or precision during hierarchical perception. In this paper, we try to substantiate this claim using neuronal simulations of directed spatial attention and biased competition. These simulations assume that neuronal activity encodes a probabilistic representation of the world that optimizes freeenergy in a Bayesian fashion. Because freeenergy bounds surprise or the (negative) logevidence for internal models of the world, this optimization can be regarded as evidence accumulation or (generalized) predictive coding. Crucially, both predictions about the state of the world generating sensory data and the precision of those data have to be optimized. Here, we show that if the precision depends on the states, one can explain many aspects of attention. We illustrate this in the context of the Posner paradigm, using the simulations to generate both psychophysical and electrophysiological responses. These simulated responses are consistent with attentional bias or gating, competition for attentional resources, attentional capture and associated speedaccuracy tradeoffs. Furthermore, if we present both attended and nonattended stimuli simultaneously, biased competition for neuronal representation emerges as a principled and straightforward property of Bayesoptimal perception.