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Refining Multiset Transformers
 Communications of the ACM
"... Gamma is a minimal language based on local multiset rewriting with an elegant chemical reaction metaphor. The virtues of this paradigm in terms of systematic program construction and design of parallel programs have been argued in previous papers. Gamma can also be seen as a notation for coordinatin ..."
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Cited by 183 (24 self)
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Gamma is a minimal language based on local multiset rewriting with an elegant chemical reaction metaphor. The virtues of this paradigm in terms of systematic program construction and design of parallel programs have been argued in previous papers. Gamma can also be seen as a notation for coordinating independent programs in a larger application. In this paper, we study a notion of refinement for programs involving parallel and sequential composition operators, and derive a number of programming laws. The calculus thus obtained is applied in the development of a generic "pipelining" transformation, which enables certain sequential compositions to be refined into parallel compositions. Keywords: Gamma, Multiset Rewriting, Program Transformation. 1 Introduction We first describe the general motivation of the work presented here before summarising the main results developed in the body of the paper. 1.1 Motivation The notion of sequential computation has played a central role in the des...
Constructive Design of a Hierarchy of Semantics of a Transition System by Abstract Interpretation
, 2002
"... We construct a hierarchy of semantics by successive abstract interpretations. Starting from the maximal trace semantics of a transition system, we derive the bigstep semantics, termination and nontermination semantics, Plotkin’s natural, Smyth’s demoniac and Hoare’s angelic relational semantics and ..."
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Cited by 123 (19 self)
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We construct a hierarchy of semantics by successive abstract interpretations. Starting from the maximal trace semantics of a transition system, we derive the bigstep semantics, termination and nontermination semantics, Plotkin’s natural, Smyth’s demoniac and Hoare’s angelic relational semantics and equivalent nondeterministic denotational semantics (with alternative powerdomains to the EgliMilner and Smyth constructions), D. Scott’s deterministic denotational semantics, the generalized and Dijkstra’s conservative/liberal predicate transformer semantics, the generalized/total and Hoare’s partial correctness axiomatic semantics and the corresponding proof methods. All the semantics are presented in a uniform fixpoint form and the correspondences between these semantics are established through composable Galois connections, each semantics being formally calculated by abstract interpretation of a more concrete one using Kleene and/or Tarski
A semantics for concurrent separation logic
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2004
"... Abstract. We present a denotational semantics based on action traces, for parallel programs which share mutable data and synchronize using resources and conditional critical regions. We introduce a resourcesensitive logic for partial correctness, adapting separation logic to the concurrent setting, ..."
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Cited by 109 (1 self)
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Abstract. We present a denotational semantics based on action traces, for parallel programs which share mutable data and synchronize using resources and conditional critical regions. We introduce a resourcesensitive logic for partial correctness, adapting separation logic to the concurrent setting, as proposed by O’Hearn. The logic allows program proofs in which “ownership ” of a piece of state is deemed to transfer dynamically between processes and resources. We prove soundness of this logic, using a novel “local ” interpretation of traces, and we show that every provable program is racefree. 1
Verification of Concurrent Programs: The AutomataTheoretic Framework
 Annals of Pure and Applied Logic
, 1987
"... We present an automatatheoretic framework to the verification of concurrent and nondeterministic programs. The basic idea is that to verify that a program P is correct one writes a program A that receives the computation of P as input and diverges only on incorrect computations of P . Now P is c ..."
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Cited by 56 (3 self)
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We present an automatatheoretic framework to the verification of concurrent and nondeterministic programs. The basic idea is that to verify that a program P is correct one writes a program A that receives the computation of P as input and diverges only on incorrect computations of P . Now P is correct if and only if a program PA , obtained by combining P and A, terminates. We formalize this idea in a framework of !automata with a recursive set of states. This unifies previous works on verification of fair termination and verification of temporal properties. 1 Introduction In this paper we present an automatatheoretic framework that unifies several trends in the area of concurrent program verification. The trends are temporal logic, model checking, automata theory, and fair termination. Let us start with a survey of these trends. In 1977 Pnueli suggested the use of temporal logic in the verification of concurrent programs [Pn77]. The basic motivation is that in the verificat...
Full abstraction for a shared variable parallel language
 In Proceedings, 8th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
, 1993
"... We give a new denotational semantics for a shared variable parallel programming language and prove full abstraction: the semantics gives identical meanings to commands if and only if they induce the same partial correctness behavior in all program contexts. The meaning of a command is a set of “tran ..."
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Cited by 39 (4 self)
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We give a new denotational semantics for a shared variable parallel programming language and prove full abstraction: the semantics gives identical meanings to commands if and only if they induce the same partial correctness behavior in all program contexts. The meaning of a command is a set of “transition traces”, which record the ways in which a command may interact with and be affected by its environment. We show how to modify the semantics to incorporate new program constructs, to allow for different levels of granularity or atomicity, and to model fair infinite computation, in each case achieving full abstraction with respect to an appropriate notion of program behavior. 1
A Coinduction Principle for Recursive Data Types Based on Bisimulation
, 1996
"... This paper provides foundations for a reasoning principle (coinduction) for establishing the equality of potentially infinite elements of selfreferencing (or circular) data types. As it is wellknown, such data types not only form the core of the denotational approach to the semantics of programmin ..."
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Cited by 37 (3 self)
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This paper provides foundations for a reasoning principle (coinduction) for establishing the equality of potentially infinite elements of selfreferencing (or circular) data types. As it is wellknown, such data types not only form the core of the denotational approach to the semantics of programming languages [SS71], but also arise explicitly as recursive data types in functional programming languages like Standard ML [MTH90] or Haskell [HPJW92]. In the latter context, the coinduction principle provides a powerful technique for establishing the equality of programs with values in recursive data types (see examples herein and in [Pit94]).
Games and full abstraction for nondeterministic languages
, 1999
"... Abstract Nondeterminism is a pervasive phenomenon in computation. Often it arises as an emergent property of a complex system, typically as the result of contention for access to shared resources. In such circumstances, we cannot always know, in advance, exactly what will happen. In other circumstan ..."
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Cited by 36 (3 self)
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Abstract Nondeterminism is a pervasive phenomenon in computation. Often it arises as an emergent property of a complex system, typically as the result of contention for access to shared resources. In such circumstances, we cannot always know, in advance, exactly what will happen. In other circumstances, nondeterminism is explicitly introduced as a means of abstracting away from implementation details such as precise command scheduling and control flow. However, the kind of behaviours exhibited by nondeterministic computations can be extremely subtle in comparison to those of their deterministic counterparts and reasoning about such programs is notoriously tricky as a result. It is therefore important to develop semantic tools to improve our understanding of, and aid our reasoning about, such nondeterministic programs. In this thesis, we extend the framework of game semantics to encompass nondeterministic computation. Game semantics is a relatively recent development in denotational semantics; its main novelty is that it views a computation not as a static entity, but rather as a dynamic process of interaction. This perspective makes the theory wellsuited to modelling many aspects of computational processes: the original use of game semantics in modelling the simple functional language PCF has subsequently been extended to handle more complex control structures such as references and continuations.
The Essence of Parallel Algol
 Information and Computation
, 1997
"... We consider a parallel Algollike language, combining procedures with sharedvariable parallelism. Procedures permit encapsulation of common parallel programming idioms. Local variables provide a way to restrict interference between parallel commands. We provide a denotational semantics for this lan ..."
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Cited by 29 (11 self)
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We consider a parallel Algollike language, combining procedures with sharedvariable parallelism. Procedures permit encapsulation of common parallel programming idioms. Local variables provide a way to restrict interference between parallel commands. We provide a denotational semantics for this language, simultaneously adapting "possible worlds" [Rey81, Ole82] to the parallel setting and generalizing "transition traces" [Bro93] to the procedural setting. This semantics supports reasoning about safety and liveness properties of parallel programs, and validates a number of natural laws of program equivalence based on noninterference properties of local variables. The semantics also validates familiar laws of functional programming. We also provide a relationally parametric semantics, generalizing [Bro93] to permit reasoning about relationpreserving properties of programs, and adapting work of O'Hearn and Tennent [OT95] to the parallel setting. This semantics supports standard methods ...
The power of the future perfect in program logics
 Information and Control
, 1985
"... The expressiveness of branching time tense (temporal) logics whose eventually operators are relativised to general paths into the future is investigated. These logics are interpreted in models obtained by generalising the usual notion of transition system to allow infinite transitions. It is shown t ..."
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Cited by 22 (0 self)
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The expressiveness of branching time tense (temporal) logics whose eventually operators are relativised to general paths into the future is investigated. These logics are interpreted in models obtained by generalising the usual notion of transition system to allow infinite transitions. It is shown that the presence of formulae expressing the future perfect enables one to prove that the expressiveness of the logic can be charaeterised by a notion of bisimulation on the generalised transition systems. The future perfect is obtained by adding a past tense operator to the language. Finally the power of various tense languages from the literature are
Algebraic Approaches to Nondeterminism  an Overview
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1997
"... this paper was published as Walicki, M.A. and Meldal, S., 1995, Nondeterministic Operators in Algebraic Frameworks, Tehnical Report No. CSLTR95664, Stanford University ..."
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Cited by 22 (3 self)
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this paper was published as Walicki, M.A. and Meldal, S., 1995, Nondeterministic Operators in Algebraic Frameworks, Tehnical Report No. CSLTR95664, Stanford University