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26
Power assignment for kconnectivity in wireless ad hoc networks
 J. Combinatorial Optimization
, 2005
"... seeks a power assignment to the nodes in a given wireless ad hoc network such that the produced network topology is kconnected and the total power is the lowest, In this paper, we present several approximation algorithms for this problem. Specifically, we propose a Ykapproximatiun algorithm for an ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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seeks a power assignment to the nodes in a given wireless ad hoc network such that the produced network topology is kconnected and the total power is the lowest, In this paper, we present several approximation algorithms for this problem. Specifically, we propose a Ykapproximatiun algorithm for any k 2 3, a (kt E H (k))approximation algorithm for k (2k 1) 5 TI where n is the network size, a (k+ 2 [(k i 1) /21)approximatiun algorithm for 2 5 k 5 7, a &approximation algorithm for k = 3, and a 9approximation algorithm fur k = 4. index Terms I;connectivity, power assignment, wireless ad hoc sensor networks I.
OutputSensitive Reporting of Disjoint Paths
, 1996
"... A kpath query on a graph consists of computing k vertexdisjoint paths between two given vertices of the graph, whenever they exist. In this paper, we study the problem of performing kpath queries, with k < 3, in a graph G with n vertices. We denote with the total length of the paths reported. For ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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A kpath query on a graph consists of computing k vertexdisjoint paths between two given vertices of the graph, whenever they exist. In this paper, we study the problem of performing kpath queries, with k < 3, in a graph G with n vertices. We denote with the total length of the paths reported. For k < 3, we present an optimal data structure for G that uses O(n) space and executes kpath queries in outputsensitive O() time. For triconnected planar graphs, our results make use of a new combinatorial structure that plays the same role as bipolar (st) orientations for biconnected planar graphs. This combinatorial structure also yields an alternative construction of convex grid drawings of triconnected planar graphs.
Directed st Numberings, Rubber Bands, and Testing Digraph kVertex Connectivity
"... Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph and n denote V. We show that G is kvertex connected iff for every subset X of V with IX I = k, there is an embedding of G in the (k I)dimensional space Rkl, ~ : V ~Rkl, such that no hyperplane contains k points of {~(v) \ v G V}, and for each v E V – X, f( ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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Let G = (V, E) be a directed graph and n denote V. We show that G is kvertex connected iff for every subset X of V with IX I = k, there is an embedding of G in the (k I)dimensional space Rkl, ~ : V ~Rkl, such that no hyperplane contains k points of {~(v) \ v G V}, and for each v E V – X, f(v) is in the convex hull of {~(w) I (v, W) G E}. This result generalizes to directed graphs the notion of convex embedding of undirected graphs introduced by Linial, LOV6SZ and Wigderson in ‘Rubber bands, convex embedding and graph connectivity, ” Combinatorics 8 (1988), 91102. Using this characterization, a directed graph can be tested for kvertex connectivity by a Monte Carlo algorithm in time O((M(n) + nkf(k)). (log n)) with error probability < l/n, and by a Las Vegas algorithm in expected time O((lf(n)+nM(k)).k), where M(n) denotes the number of arithmetic steps for multiplying two n x n matrices (Al(n) = 0(n2.3755)). Our Monte Carlo algorithm improves on the best previous deterministic and randomized time complexities for k> no. *9; e.g., for k = @, the factor of improvement is> n0.G2. Both algorithms have processor efficient parallel versions that run in O((log n)2) time on the EREW PRAM model of computation, using a number of processors equal to (logn) times the respective sequential time complexities. Our Monte Carlo parallel algorithm improves on the number of processors used by the best previous (Monte Carlo) parallel algorithm by a factor of at least (n2/(log n)3) while having the same running time. Generalizing the notion of st numberings, we give a combinatorial construction of a directed st nulmberiug for any 2vertex connected directed graph.
Fully Dynamic Planarity Testing with Applications
"... The fully dynamic planarity testing problem consists of performing an arbitrary sequence of the following three kinds of operations on a planar graph G: (i) insert an edge if the resultant graph remains planar; (ii) delete an edge; and (iii) test whether an edge could be added to the graph without ..."
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Cited by 6 (0 self)
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The fully dynamic planarity testing problem consists of performing an arbitrary sequence of the following three kinds of operations on a planar graph G: (i) insert an edge if the resultant graph remains planar; (ii) delete an edge; and (iii) test whether an edge could be added to the graph without violating planarity. We show how to support each of the above operations in O(n2=3) time, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. The bound for tests and deletions is worstcase, while the bound for insertions is amortized. This is the first algorithm for this problem with sublinear running time, and it affirmatively answers a question posed in [11]. The same data structure has further applications in maintaining the biconnected and triconnected components of a dynamic planar graph. The time bounds are the same: O(n2=3) worstcase time per edge deletion, O(n2=3) amortized time per edge insertion, and O(n2=3) worstcase time to check whether two vertices are either biconnected or triconnected.
Finding Four Independent Trees
"... Motivated by a multitree approach to the design of reliable communication protocols, Itai and Rodeh gave a linear time algorithm for finding two independent spanning trees in a 2connected graph. Cheriyan and Maheshwari gave an O(V  2) algorithm for finding three independent spanning trees in a 3 ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Motivated by a multitree approach to the design of reliable communication protocols, Itai and Rodeh gave a linear time algorithm for finding two independent spanning trees in a 2connected graph. Cheriyan and Maheshwari gave an O(V  2) algorithm for finding three independent spanning trees in a 3connected graph. In this paper we present an O(V  3) algorithm for finding four independent spanning trees in a 4connected graph. We make use of chain decompositions of 4connected graphs. ∗ Partially supported by NSF VIGRE grant † Supported by CNPq (Proc: 200611/003) – Brazil ‡ Partially supported by NSF grant DMS0245530 and NSA grant MDA9040310052
SeparatorBased Sparsification II: Edge And Vertex Connectivity
 SIAM J. Comput
, 1998
"... . We consider the problem of maintaining a dynamic planar graph subject to edge insertions and edge deletions that preserve planarity but that can change the embedding. We describe algorithms and data structures for maintaining information about 2 and 3vertexconnectivity, and 3 and 4edgeconnec ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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. We consider the problem of maintaining a dynamic planar graph subject to edge insertions and edge deletions that preserve planarity but that can change the embedding. We describe algorithms and data structures for maintaining information about 2 and 3vertexconnectivity, and 3 and 4edgeconnectivity in a planar graph in O(n 1/2 ) amortized time per insertion, deletion, or connectivity query. All of the data structures handle insertions that keep the graph planar without regard to any particular embedding of the graph. Our algorithms are based on a new type of sparsification combined with several properties of separators in planar graphs. Key words. analysis of algorithms, dynamic data structures, edge connectivity, vertex connectivity, planar graphs AMS subject classifications. 68P05, 68Q20, 68R10 PII. S0097539794269072 1. Introduction. Sparse certificates, small graphs that retain some property of a larger graph, appear often in graph theory, especially in problems of edge and...
Directional Routing via Generals stNumberings
 SIAM JOURNAL ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
, 2000
"... We present a mathematical model for network routing based on generating paths in a consistent direction. Our development is based on an algebraic and geometric framework for defining a directional coordinate system for real vector spaces. Our model, which generalizes graph stnumberings, is based on ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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We present a mathematical model for network routing based on generating paths in a consistent direction. Our development is based on an algebraic and geometric framework for defining a directional coordinate system for real vector spaces. Our model, which generalizes graph stnumberings, is based on mapping the nodes of a network to points in multidimensional space and ensures that the paths generated in di#erent directions from the same source are nodedisjoint. Such directional embeddings encode the global disjoint path structure with very simple local information. We prove that all 3connected graphs have 3directional embeddings in the plane so that each node outside a set of extreme nodes has a neighbor in each of the three directional regions defined in the plane. We conjecture that the result generalizes to kconnected graphs. We also showthat a directed acyclic graph (dag) that is kconnected to a set of sinks has a kdirectional embedding in (k  1)space with the sink set as the extreme nodes.
Optimal Independent Spanning Trees on Hypercubes
, 2004
"... Two spanning trees rooted at some vertex r in a graph G are said to be independent if for each vertex v of G, v ≠ r, the paths from r to v in two trees are vertexdisjoint. A set of spanning trees of G is said to be independent if they are pairwise independent. A set of independent spanning trees is ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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Two spanning trees rooted at some vertex r in a graph G are said to be independent if for each vertex v of G, v ≠ r, the paths from r to v in two trees are vertexdisjoint. A set of spanning trees of G is said to be independent if they are pairwise independent. A set of independent spanning trees is optimal if the average path length of the trees is the minimum. Any kdimensional hypercube has k independent spanning trees rooted at an arbitrary vertex. In this paper, an O(kn) time algorithm is proposed to construct k optimal independent spanning trees on a kdimensional hypercube, where n = 2 k is the number of vertices in a hypercube.
NonSeparating Cycles in 4Connected Graphs
, 2001
"... We prove that given any fixed edge ra in a 4connected graph G, there exists a cycle C through ra such that G − (V (C) − {r}) is 2connected. This will provide the first step in a decomposition for 4connected graphs. We also prove that for any given edge e in a 5connected graph G there exists an ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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We prove that given any fixed edge ra in a 4connected graph G, there exists a cycle C through ra such that G − (V (C) − {r}) is 2connected. This will provide the first step in a decomposition for 4connected graphs. We also prove that for any given edge e in a 5connected graph G there exists an induced cycle C through e in G such that G − V (C) is 2connected. This provides evidence for a conjecture of Lovász.
A LinearTime Algorithm for Finding an Ambitus
 Algorithmica
, 1992
"... We devise a lineartime algorithm for finding an ambitus in an undirected graph. An ambitus is a cycle in a graph containing two distinguished vertices such that certain different groups of bridges (called B P , B Q  and B PQ bridges) satisfy the property that a bridge in one group does not ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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We devise a lineartime algorithm for finding an ambitus in an undirected graph. An ambitus is a cycle in a graph containing two distinguished vertices such that certain different groups of bridges (called B P , B Q  and B PQ bridges) satisfy the property that a bridge in one group does not interlace with any bridge in the other groups. Thus, an ambitus allows the graph to be cut into pieces, where, in each piece, certain graph properties may be investigated independently and recursively, and then the pieces can be pasted together to yield information about these graph properties in the original graph. In order to achieve a good timecomplexity for such an algorithm employing the divideandconquer paradigm, it is necessary to find an ambitus quickly. We also show that, using ambitus, lineartime algorithms can be devised for abidingpathfinding and nonseparatinginducedcyclefinding problems. Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Preliminaries 2 2.1 Graph Theoretic Terminology : : ...