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**1 - 5**of**5**### Tetris-XL:A Performance-Driven Spill Reduction Technique for Embedded VLIW Processors

"... has grown to include a variety of embedded platforms. Due to cost and power consumption constraints, many embedded VLIW processors contain limited resources, including registers. As a result, a VLIW compiler that maximizes instruction level parallelism (ILP) without considering register constraints ..."

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has grown to include a variety of embedded platforms. Due to cost and power consumption constraints, many embedded VLIW processors contain limited resources, including registers. As a result, a VLIW compiler that maximizes instruction level parallelism (ILP) without considering register constraints may generate excessive register spills, leading to reduced overall system performance. To address this issue, this paper presents a new spill reduction technique that improves VLIW runtime performance by reordering operations prior to register allocation and instruction scheduling. Unlike earlier algorithms, our approach explicitly considers both register reduction and data dependency in performing operation reordering. Data dependency control limits unexpected schedule length increases during subsequent instruction scheduling. Our technique has been evaluated using Trimaran, an academic VLIW compiler, and evaluated using a set of embedded systems benchmarks. Experimental results show that, on average, this technique improves VLIW performance by 10 % for VLIW processors with 32 registers and 8 functional units compared with previous spill reduction techniques. Limited improvement is seen versus prior approaches for VLIW processors with 64 registers and 8 functional units.

### DOI: 10.1016/j.entcs.2005.01.033 On the Optimality of Register Saturation

, 2012

"... In an optimizing compiler, the register allocation process is still a crucial phase since it allows to reduce spill code that damages the performances. The register constraints are generally taken into account during the instruction scheduling phase of an acyclic data dependence graph (DAG) : any sc ..."

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In an optimizing compiler, the register allocation process is still a crucial phase since it allows to reduce spill code that damages the performances. The register constraints are generally taken into account during the instruction scheduling phase of an acyclic data dependence graph (DAG) : any schedule must minimize the register requirement. However, in a previous work [14], we introduced and mathematically studied the register saturation (RS) concept. It consists of computing the exact upper-bound of the register need for all the valid schedules, independently of the functional unit constraints. The goal of RS is to decouple register constraints from instruction scheduling. In this paper, we continue our theoretical efforts and we present two main results. First, we give an exact solution with integer linear programming for both the problems of computing the RS of a DAG and reducing it. Our integer program brings a new way to model register constraints that allows us to produce the lowest number of constraints and variables in the literature (till now). Indeed, given a DAG with n nodes and m arcs, we need O(n 2) integer variables and O(m+n 2) linear constraints, which is better than the actual size complexity in the literature that model register constraints. Second, we prove that the problem of reducing the register saturation is NP-hard. Our detailed experiments in this paper show that our previous heuristics [14] are nearly optimal. We provide a discussion too in order to argument why the RS approach should be better that minimizing the register requirement.

### Méthodes d’optimisations de programmes bas niveau

"... “... Was this is an example concerning foundational research based on rigorous mathematical and logical modelling and reasoning. I would like to single out as another example of the uniqueness and quality of the research of the applicant an example from another pole of the methodological spectrum ap ..."

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“... Was this is an example concerning foundational research based on rigorous mathematical and logical modelling and reasoning. I would like to single out as another example of the uniqueness and quality of the research of the applicant an example from another pole of the methodological spectrum applied by the applicant in his research, concerning practical experiments conducted in the search of hard problems, i.e. an example from the engineering pole of research.... Moreover, I would like to add that the research work of the applicant is methodological sound, that it presents new and important scientific insights in theory and practice, and clearly demonstrate the ability of the applicant to contribute to the development and advancement of the field.... ”

### Early periodic register . . .

, 2004

"... Register allocation in loops is generally performed after or during the software pipelining process. This is because doing a conventional register allocation as a first step without assuming a schedule lacks the information of interferences between values live ranges. Thus, the register allocator ma ..."

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Register allocation in loops is generally performed after or during the software pipelining process. This is because doing a conventional register allocation as a first step without assuming a schedule lacks the information of interferences between values live ranges. Thus, the register allocator may introduce an excessive amount of false dependences that dramatically reduce the ILP (Instruction Level Parallelism). We present a new theoretical framework for controlling the register pressure before software pipelining. This is based on inserting some anti-dependence edges (register reuse edges) labeled with reuse distances, directly on the data dependence graph. In this new graph, we are able to fix the register pressure, measured as the number of simultaneously alive variables in any schedule. The determination of register and distance reuse is parameterized by the desired minimum initiation interval (MII) as well as by the register pressure constraints- either can be minimized while the other one is fixed. After scheduling, register allocation is done on conventional register sets or on rotating register files. We give an optimal exact model, and an approximation that generalizes the Ning-Gao [22] buffer optimization method. We provide experimental results which show good improvement compared to [22]. Our theoretical model considers superscalar, VLIW and EPIC/IA64 processors.