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71
The Dimensions of Individual Strings and Sequences
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 2003
"... A constructive version of Hausdorff dimension is developed using constructive supergales, which are betting strategies that generalize the constructive supermartingales used in the theory of individual random sequences. This constructive dimension is used to assign every individual (infinite, binary ..."
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Cited by 93 (10 self)
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A constructive version of Hausdorff dimension is developed using constructive supergales, which are betting strategies that generalize the constructive supermartingales used in the theory of individual random sequences. This constructive dimension is used to assign every individual (infinite, binary) sequence S a dimension, which is a real number dim(S) in the interval [0, 1]. Sequences that
Effective strong dimension in algorithmic information and computational complexity
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2004
"... The two most important notions of fractal dimension are Hausdorff dimension, developed by Hausdorff (1919), and packing dimension, developed independently by Tricot (1982) and Sullivan (1984). Both dimensions have the mathematical advantage of being defined from measures, and both have yielded exten ..."
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Cited by 79 (29 self)
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The two most important notions of fractal dimension are Hausdorff dimension, developed by Hausdorff (1919), and packing dimension, developed independently by Tricot (1982) and Sullivan (1984). Both dimensions have the mathematical advantage of being defined from measures, and both have yielded extensive applications in fractal geometry and dynamical systems. Lutz (2000) has recently proven a simple characterization of Hausdorff dimension in terms of gales, which are betting strategies that generalize martingales. Imposing various computability and complexity constraints on these gales produces a spectrum of effective versions of Hausdorff dimension, including constructive, computable, polynomialspace, polynomialtime, and finitestate dimensions. Work by several investigators has already used these effective dimensions to shed significant new light on a variety of topics in theoretical computer science. In this paper we show that packing dimension can also be characterized in terms of gales. Moreover, even though the usual definition of packing dimension is considerably more complex than that of Hausdorff dimension, our gale characterization of packing dimension is an exact dual
FiniteState Dimension
, 2001
"... Classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called fractal dimension) was recently effectivized using gales (betting strategies that generalize martingales), thereby endowing various complexity classes with dimension structure and also defining the constructive dimensions of individual binary (infinite ..."
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Cited by 38 (16 self)
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Classical Hausdorff dimension (sometimes called fractal dimension) was recently effectivized using gales (betting strategies that generalize martingales), thereby endowing various complexity classes with dimension structure and also defining the constructive dimensions of individual binary (infinite) sequences. In this paper we use gales computed by multiaccount finitestate gamblers to develop the finitestate dimensions of sets of binary sequences and individual binary sequences. The theorem of Eggleston (1949) relating Hausdorff dimension to entropy is shown to hold for finitestate dimension, both in the space of all sequences and in the space of all rational sequences (binary expansions of rational numbers). Every rational sequence has finitestate dimension 0, but every rational number in [0; 1] is the finitestate dimension of a sequence in the lowlevel complexity class AC0 . Our main theorem shows that the finitestate dimension of a sequence is precisely the infimum of all compression ratios achievable on the sequence by informationlossless finitestate compressors.
Fractal Dimension and Logarithmic Loss Unpredictability
"... We show that the Hausdorff dimension equals the logarithmic loss unpredictability for any set of infinite sequences over a finite alphabet. Using computable, feasible, and finitestate predictors, this equivalence also holds for the recently introduced computable, feasible, and finitestate dimensio ..."
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Cited by 36 (10 self)
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We show that the Hausdorff dimension equals the logarithmic loss unpredictability for any set of infinite sequences over a finite alphabet. Using computable, feasible, and finitestate predictors, this equivalence also holds for the recently introduced computable, feasible, and finitestate dimensions [Lutz (2000) and Dai, Lathrop, Lutz, and Mayordomo (2001)]. Combining this with recent results of Fortnow and Lutz (2002), we have a tight relationship between prediction with respect to logarithmic loss and absolute loss.
Hausdorff dimension in exponential time
 Computational Complexity, IEEE Computer Society
"... In this paper we investigate effective versions of Hausdorff dimension which have been recently introduced by Lutz. We focus on dimension in the class E of sets computable in linear exponential time. We determine the dimension of various classes related to fundamental structural properties including ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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In this paper we investigate effective versions of Hausdorff dimension which have been recently introduced by Lutz. We focus on dimension in the class E of sets computable in linear exponential time. We determine the dimension of various classes related to fundamental structural properties including different types of autoreducibility and immunity. By a new general invariance theorem for resourcebounded dimension we show that the class of pmcomplete sets for E has dimension 1 in E. Moreover, we show that there are pmlower spans in E of dimension H(β) for any rational β between 0 and 1, where H(β) is the binary entropy function. This leads to a new general completeness notion for E that properly extends Lutz’s concept of weak completeness. Finally we characterize resourcebounded dimension in terms of martingales with restricted betting ratios and in terms of prediction functions. 1.
MAX3SAT Is Exponentially Hard to Approximate If NP Has Positive Dimension
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2002
"... Under the hypothesis that NP has positive pdimension, we prove that any approximation for MAX3SAT must satisfy at least one of the following: time. ..."
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Cited by 29 (14 self)
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Under the hypothesis that NP has positive pdimension, we prove that any approximation for MAX3SAT must satisfy at least one of the following: time.
Scaled dimension and nonuniform complexity
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 2004
"... Resourcebounded dimension is a complexitytheoretic extension of classical Hausdorff dimension introduced by Lutz (2000) in order to investigate the fractal structure of sets that have resourcebounded measure 0. For example, while it has long been known that the Boolean circuitsize complexity cla ..."
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Cited by 25 (11 self)
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Resourcebounded dimension is a complexitytheoretic extension of classical Hausdorff dimension introduced by Lutz (2000) in order to investigate the fractal structure of sets that have resourcebounded measure 0. For example, while it has long been known that the Boolean circuitsize complexity class SIZE � α 2n n has measure 0 in ESPACE for all 0 ≤ α ≤ 1, we now know that SIZE � α 2n n has dimension α in ESPACE for all 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. The present paper furthers this program by developing a natural hierarchy of “rescaled” resourcebounded dimensions. For each integer i and each set X of decision problems, we define the ithorder dimension of X in suitable complexity classes. The 0thorder dimension is precisely the dimension of Hausdorff (1919) and Lutz (2000). Higher and lower orders are useful for various sets X. For example, we prove the following for 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 and any polynomial q(n) ≥ n2. 1. The class SIZE(2 αn) and the time and spacebounded Kolmogorov complexity classes KT q (2 αn) and KS q (2 αn) have 1 storder dimension α in ESPACE. 2. The classes SIZE(2nα), KT q (2nα), and KS q (2nα) have 2ndorder dimension α in ESPACE.
A lower cone in the wtt degrees of nonintegral effective dimension
 In Proceedings of IMS workshop on Computational Prospects of Infinity
, 2006
"... ABSTRACT. For any rational number r, we show that there exists a set A (weak truthtable reducible to the halting problem) such that any set B weak truthtable reducible to it has effective Hausdorff dimension at most r, where A itself has dimension at least r. This implies, for any rational r, the e ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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ABSTRACT. For any rational number r, we show that there exists a set A (weak truthtable reducible to the halting problem) such that any set B weak truthtable reducible to it has effective Hausdorff dimension at most r, where A itself has dimension at least r. This implies, for any rational r, the existence of a wttlower cone of effective dimension r. 1.
Correspondence Principles for Effective Dimensions
 In Proceedings of the 29th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming
, 2001
"... We show that the classical Hausdorff and constructive dimensions of any union of 1  definable sets of binary sequences are equal. If the union is effective, that is, the set of sequences is 2 definable, then the computable dimension also equals the Hausdorff dimension. This second result is implic ..."
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Cited by 20 (6 self)
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We show that the classical Hausdorff and constructive dimensions of any union of 1  definable sets of binary sequences are equal. If the union is effective, that is, the set of sequences is 2 definable, then the computable dimension also equals the Hausdorff dimension. This second result is implicit in the work of Staiger (1998). Staiger also proved related results using entropy rates of decidable languages. We show that Staiger's computable entropy rate provides an equivalent definition of computable dimension. We also prove that a constructive version of Staiger's entropy rate coincides with constructive dimension.