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MONA: Monadic SecondOrder Logic in Practice
 IN PRACTICE, IN TOOLS AND ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS, FIRST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP, TACAS '95, LNCS 1019
, 1995
"... The purpose of this article is to introduce Monadic Secondorder Logic as a practical means of specifying regularity. The logic is a highly succinct alternative to the use of regular expressions. We have built a tool MONA, which acts as a decision procedure and as a translator to finitestate au ..."
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Cited by 143 (19 self)
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The purpose of this article is to introduce Monadic Secondorder Logic as a practical means of specifying regularity. The logic is a highly succinct alternative to the use of regular expressions. We have built a tool MONA, which acts as a decision procedure and as a translator to finitestate automata. The tool is based on new algorithms for minimizing finitestate automata that use binary decision diagrams (BDDs) to represent transition functions in compressed form. A byproduct of this work is a new bottomup algorithm to reduce BDDs in linear time without hashing. The potential
Algorithms for the Satisfiability (SAT) Problem: A Survey
 DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1996
"... . The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, compute ..."
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Cited by 143 (3 self)
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. The satisfiability (SAT) problem is a core problem in mathematical logic and computing theory. In practice, SAT is fundamental in solving many problems in automated reasoning, computeraided design, computeraided manufacturing, machine vision, database, robotics, integrated circuit design, computer architecture design, and computer network design. Traditional methods treat SAT as a discrete, constrained decision problem. In recent years, many optimization methods, parallel algorithms, and practical techniques have been developed for solving SAT. In this survey, we present a general framework (an algorithm space) that integrates existing SAT algorithms into a unified perspective. We describe sequential and parallel SAT algorithms including variable splitting, resolution, local search, global optimization, mathematical programming, and practical SAT algorithms. We give performance evaluation of some existing SAT algorithms. Finally, we provide a set of practical applications of the sat...
Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking and Heuristic Search
, 2003
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TVLA: A System for Implementing Static Analyses
 In Static Analysis Symp
, 2000
"... We present TVLA (ThreeValuedLogic Analysis engine). TVLA is a "YACC"like framework for automatically constructing staticanalysis algorithms from an operational semantics, where the operational semantics is specified using logical formulae. TVLA was implemented in Java and was successfu ..."
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Cited by 131 (27 self)
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We present TVLA (ThreeValuedLogic Analysis engine). TVLA is a "YACC"like framework for automatically constructing staticanalysis algorithms from an operational semantics, where the operational semantics is specified using logical formulae. TVLA was implemented in Java and was successfully used to perform shape analysis on programs manipulating linked data structures (singly and doubly linked lists), to prove safety properties of Mobile Ambients, and to verify the partial correctness of several sorting programs.
Evaluating Deadlock Detection Methods for Concurrent Software
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1996
"... Static analysis of concurrent programs has been hindered by the well known state explosion problem. Although many different techniques have been proposed to combat this state explosion, there is little empirical data comparing the performance of the methods. This information is essential for assessi ..."
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Cited by 130 (6 self)
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Static analysis of concurrent programs has been hindered by the well known state explosion problem. Although many different techniques have been proposed to combat this state explosion, there is little empirical data comparing the performance of the methods. This information is essential for assessing the practical value of a technique and for choosing the best method for a particular problem. In this paper, we carry out an evaluation of three techniques for combating the state explosion problem in deadlock detection: reachability search with a partial order state space reduction, symbolic model checking, and inequality necessary conditions. We justify the method used for the comparison, and carefully analyze several sources of potential bias. The results of our evaluation provide valuable data on the kinds of programs to which each technique might best be applied. Furthermore, we believe that the methodological issues we discuss are of general significance in comparison of analysis te...
Decomposable negation normal form
 Journal of the ACM
, 2001
"... Abstract. Knowledge compilation has been emerging recently as a new direction of research for dealing with the computational intractability of general propositional reasoning. According to this approach, the reasoning process is split into two phases: an offline compilation phase and an online quer ..."
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Cited by 129 (19 self)
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Abstract. Knowledge compilation has been emerging recently as a new direction of research for dealing with the computational intractability of general propositional reasoning. According to this approach, the reasoning process is split into two phases: an offline compilation phase and an online queryanswering phase. In the offline phase, the propositional theory is compiled into some target language, which is typically a tractable one. In the online phase, the compiled target is used to efficiently answer a (potentially) exponential number of queries. The main motivation behind knowledge compilation is to push as much of the computational overhead as possible into the offline phase, in order to amortize that overhead over all online queries. Another motivation behind compilation is to produce very simple online reasoning systems, which can be embedded costeffectively into primitive computational platforms, such as those found in consumer electronics. One of the key aspects of any compilation approach is the target language into which the propositional theory is compiled. Previous target languages included Horn theories, prime implicates/implicants and ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs). We propose in this paper a new target compilation language, known as decomposable negation normal form (DNNF), and present a number of its properties that make it of interest to the broad community. Specifically, we
Planning in Nondeterministic Domains under Partial Observability via Symbolic Model Checking
, 2001
"... Planning under partial observability is one of the most significant and challenging planning problems. It has been ..."
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Cited by 127 (22 self)
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Planning under partial observability is one of the most significant and challenging planning problems. It has been
Verification Tools for FiniteState Concurrent Systems
"... Temporal logic model checking is an automatic technique for verifying finitestate concurrent systems. Specifications are expressed in a propositional temporal logic, and the concurrent system is modeled as a statetransition graph. An efficient search procedure is used to determine whether or not t ..."
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Cited by 124 (3 self)
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Temporal logic model checking is an automatic technique for verifying finitestate concurrent systems. Specifications are expressed in a propositional temporal logic, and the concurrent system is modeled as a statetransition graph. An efficient search procedure is used to determine whether or not the statetransition graph satisfies the specification. When the technique was first developed ten years ago, it was only possible to handle concurrent systems with a few thousand states. In the last few years, however, the size of the concurrent systems that can be handled has increased dramatically. By representing transition relations and sets of states implicitly using binary decision diagrams, it is now possible to check concurrent systems with more than 10 120 states. In this paper we describe in detail how the new implementation works and
Binary Decision Diagrams and Beyond: Enabling Technologies for Formal Verification
, 1995
"... Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) have found widespread use in CAD applications such as formal verification, logic synthesis, and test generation. OBDDs represent Boolean functions in a form that is both canonical and compact for many practical cases. They can be generated and manipulated by ..."
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Cited by 122 (0 self)
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Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (OBDDs) have found widespread use in CAD applications such as formal verification, logic synthesis, and test generation. OBDDs represent Boolean functions in a form that is both canonical and compact for many practical cases. They can be generated and manipulated by efficient graph algorithms. Researchers have found that many tasks can be expressed as series of operations on Boolean functions, making them candidates for OBDDbased methods. The success of OBDDs has inspired efforts to improve their efficiency and to expand their range of applicability. Techniques have been discovered to make the representation more compact and to represent other classes of functions. This has led to improved performance on existing OBDD applications, as well as enabled new classes of problems to be solved. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in graphbased function representations. We focus on several recent advances of particular importance for forma...
A KnowledgeBased Approach to Planning with Incomplete Information and Sensing
, 2002
"... In this paper we present a new approach to the problem of planning with incomplete information and sensing. Our approach is based on a higher level, "knowledgebased," representation of the planner's knowledge and of the domain actions. In particular, in our approach we use a set of f ..."
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Cited by 112 (17 self)
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In this paper we present a new approach to the problem of planning with incomplete information and sensing. Our approach is based on a higher level, "knowledgebased," representation of the planner's knowledge and of the domain actions. In particular, in our approach we use a set of formulae from a firstorder modal logic of knowledge to represent the planner's incomplete knowledge state. Actions are then represented as updates to this collection of formulae. Hence, actions are being modelled in terms of how they modify the knowledge state of the planner rather than in terms of how they modify the physical world. We have constructed a planner to utilize this representation and we use it to show that on many common problems this more abstract representation is perfectly adequate for solving the planning problem, and that in fact it scales better and supports features that make it applicable to much richer domains and problems.