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Toward an objectoriented structure for mathematical text
 MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, 4TH INT’L CONF., PROCEEDINGS. VOLUME 3863 OF LECTURE NOTES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 2006
"... Computerizing mathematical texts to allow software access to some or all of the texts ’ semantic content is a long and tedious process that currently requires much expertise. We believe it is useful to support computerization that adds some structural and semantic information, but does not require j ..."
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Computerizing mathematical texts to allow software access to some or all of the texts ’ semantic content is a long and tedious process that currently requires much expertise. We believe it is useful to support computerization that adds some structural and semantic information, but does not require jumping directly from the wordprocessing level (e.g., L ATEX) to full formalization (e.g., Mizar, Coq, etc.). Although some existing mathematical languages are aimed at this middle ground (e.g., MathML, OpenMath, OMDoc), we believe they miss features needed to capture some important aspects of mathematical texts, especially the portion written with natural language. For this reason, we have been developing MathLang, a language for representing mathematical texts that has weak type checking and support for the special mathematical use of natural language. MathLang is currently aimed at only capturing the essential grammatical and binding structure of mathematical text without requiring full formalization. The development of MathLang is directly driven by experience encoding real mathematical texts. Based on this experience, this paper presents the changes that yield our latest version of MathLang. We have restructured and simplified the core of the language, replaced our old notion of “context” by a new system of blocks and local scoping, and made other changes. Furthermore, we have enhanced our support for the mathematical use of nouns and adjectives with objectoriented features so that nouns now correspond to classes, and adjectives to mixins.
Assisted proof document authoring
 Mathematical Knowledge Management MKM 2005, LNAI 3863
, 2006
"... Abstract. Recently, significant advances have been made in formalised mathematical texts for large, demanding proofs. But although such large developments are possible, they still take an inordinate amount of effort and time, and there is a significant gap between the resulting formalised machinech ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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Abstract. Recently, significant advances have been made in formalised mathematical texts for large, demanding proofs. But although such large developments are possible, they still take an inordinate amount of effort and time, and there is a significant gap between the resulting formalised machinecheckable proof scripts and the corresponding humanreadable mathematical texts. We present an authoring system for formal proof which addresses these concerns. It is based on a central document format which, in the tradition of literate programming, allows one to extract either a formal proof script or a humanreadable document; the two may have differing structure and detail levels, but are developed together in a synchronised way. Additionally, we introduce ways to assist production of the central document, by allowing tools to contribute backflow to update and extend it. Our authoring system builds on the new PG Kit architecture for Proof General, bringing the extra advantage that it works in a uniform interface, generically across various interactive theorem provers. 1
Authoring LeActiveMath Calculus Content
 MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, MKM’06, LNAI, PAGES 251 – 265
, 2006
"... Within the LeActiveMath project, a collection of OMDoc files and supporting material has been realized. This content covers the derivative side of calculus and is being used by students in the LeActiveMath learning environment. LeAMcalculus is the first collection trying to make use of most of the ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Within the LeActiveMath project, a collection of OMDoc files and supporting material has been realized. This content covers the derivative side of calculus and is being used by students in the LeActiveMath learning environment. LeAMcalculus is the first collection trying to make use of most of the features of the learning environment including advanced usages of OpenMath and OMDoc. It has been written in OQMath, a readable xmlsyntax. This paper describes the tools to produce it, how they were used and combined, the resulting content and the experience gained. It argues that the declaration of new OpenMath symbols is a requirement and explains challenges of authoring semantic mathematical content. Finally, it presents the management activities to support the authoring process.
Identifying and Extracting Quantitative Data in Annotated Text ⋆
"... Abstract. In science it is difficult to reuse quantitative scientific data. For example, it is not possible to search for quantitative data in papers in a directed way, such as using the query "Select the storage modulus of dairy product A after the temperature has decreased from 90 to 4 ◦ C&qu ..."
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Abstract. In science it is difficult to reuse quantitative scientific data. For example, it is not possible to search for quantitative data in papers in a directed way, such as using the query "Select the storage modulus of dairy product A after the temperature has decreased from 90 to 4 ◦ C". This is caused by the fact that data is made available in (relatively) free formats as in scientific papers, spreadsheets, or databases, all with limited annotation and description of the way they were obtained. Meaning is lost, for example about what the numbers relate to (quantities and units are often poorly indicated). Many researchers, especially in the physical and computer sciences use LATEX in their creation of scientific papers. In this paper we present a set of LATEXstyle files, which use the terminology defined in wurvoc.org, that can be used to annotate scientific papers. These style files define a set of commands, each representing a specific quantity or unit. If the LATEX is typeset into a PDF file, quantities and units in the PDF will be annotated with the appropriate references (URIs) to the corresponding concepts in the OM ontology. This will not only disambiguate the use of these quantities and units, but will also enable us to extract triples from the PDF, facilitating the use of SPARQL queries to answer advanced quantitative question. 1