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Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol (RMTP)
"... This paper presents the design, implementation and performance of a reliable multicast transport protocol called RMTP. RMTP is based on a hierarchical structure in which receivers are grouped into local regions or domains and in each domain there is a special receiver called a Designated Receiver (D ..."
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Cited by 591 (10 self)
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This paper presents the design, implementation and performance of a reliable multicast transport protocol called RMTP. RMTP is based on a hierarchical structure in which receivers are grouped into local regions or domains and in each domain there is a special receiver called a Designated Receiver (DR) which is responsible for sending acknowledgments periodically to the sender, for processing acknowledgements from receivers in its domain and for retransmitting lost packets to the corresponding receivers. Since lost packets are recovered by local retransmissions as opposed to retransmissions from the original sender, endtoend latency is significantly reduced, and the overall throughput is improved as well. Also, since only the DRs send their acknowledgments to the sender, instead of all receivers sending their acknowledgments to the sender, a single acknowledgement is generated per local region, and this prevents acknowledgement implosion. Receivers in RMTP send their acknowledgments to the DRs periodically, thereby simplifying error recovery. In addition, lost packets are recovered by selective repeat retransmissions, leading to improved throughput at the cost of minimal additional buffering at the receivers. This paper also describes the implementation of RMTP and its performance on the Internet.
A quantitative comparison of graphbased models for internet topology
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 1997
"... Graphs are commonly used to model the topological structure of internetworks, to study problems ranging from routing to resource reservation. A variety of graphs are found in the literature, including fixed topologies such as rings or stars, "wellknown" topologies such as the ARPAnet, and randomly ..."
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Cited by 223 (3 self)
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Graphs are commonly used to model the topological structure of internetworks, to study problems ranging from routing to resource reservation. A variety of graphs are found in the literature, including fixed topologies such as rings or stars, "wellknown" topologies such as the ARPAnet, and randomly generated topologies. While many researchers rely upon graphs for analytic and simulation studies, there has been little analysis of the implications of using a particular model, or how the graph generation method may a ect the results of such studies. Further, the selection of one generation method over another is often arbitrary, since the differences and similarities between methods are not well understood. This paper considers the problem of generating and selecting graph models that reflect the properties of real internetworks. We review generation methods in common use, and also propose several new methods. We consider a set of metrics that characterize the graphs produced by a method, and we quantify similarities and differences amongst several generation methods with respect to these metrics. We also consider the effect of the graph model in the context of a speciffic problem, namely multicast routing.
An Overview of QualityofService Routing for the Next Generation HighSpeed Networks: Problems and Solutions
"... The upcoming Gbps highspeed networks are expected to support a wide range of communicationintensive, realtime multimedia applications. The requirement for timely delivery of digitized audiovisual information raises new challenges for the next generation integratedservice broadband networks. On ..."
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Cited by 182 (17 self)
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The upcoming Gbps highspeed networks are expected to support a wide range of communicationintensive, realtime multimedia applications. The requirement for timely delivery of digitized audiovisual information raises new challenges for the next generation integratedservice broadband networks. One of the key issues is the QualityofService (QoS) routing. It selects network routes with sufficient resources for the requested QoS parameters. The goal of routing solutions is twofold: (1) satisfying the QoS requirements for every admitted connection and (2) achieving the global efficiency in resource utilization. Many unicast/multicast QoS routing algorithms were published recently, and they work with a variety of QoS requirements and resource constraints. Overall, they can be partitioned into three broad classes: (1) source routing, (2) distributed routing and (3) hierarchical routing algorithms. In this paper we give an overview of the QoS routing problem as well as the existing solutions. We present the strengths and the weaknesses of different routing strategies and outline the challenges. We also discuss the basic algorithms in each class, classify and compare them, and point out possible future directions in the QoS routing area.
Bicriteria network design problems
 In Proc. 22nd Int. Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
, 1995
"... We study a general class of bicriteria network design problems. A generic problem in this class is as follows: Given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives (under different cost functions), with a budget specified on the first, find a ¡subgraph from a given subgraphclass that minimizes ..."
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Cited by 76 (13 self)
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We study a general class of bicriteria network design problems. A generic problem in this class is as follows: Given an undirected graph and two minimization objectives (under different cost functions), with a budget specified on the first, find a ¡subgraph from a given subgraphclass that minimizes the second objective subject to the budget on the first. We consider three different criteria the total edge cost, the diameter and the maximum degree of the network. Here, we present the first polynomialtime approximation algorithms for a large class of bicriteria network design problems for the above mentioned criteria. The following general types of results are presented. First, we develop a framework for bicriteria problems and their approximations. Second, when the two criteria are the same we present a “black box ” parametric search technique. This black box takes in as input an (approximation) algorithm for the unicriterion situation and generates an approximation algorithm for the bicriteria case with only a constant factor loss in the performance guarantee. Third, when the two criteria are the diameter and the total edge costs we use a clusterbased approach to devise a approximation algorithms — the solutions output violate
Multicast Tree Generation in Networks with Asymmetric Links
 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
, 1996
"... We formulate the problem of multicast tree generation as one of computing a directed Steiner tree of minimal cost. In this context, we present a polynomialtime algorithm that provides for tradeoff selection, using a single parameter , between the treecost (Steiner cost) and the runtime efficiency ..."
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Cited by 74 (0 self)
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We formulate the problem of multicast tree generation as one of computing a directed Steiner tree of minimal cost. In this context, we present a polynomialtime algorithm that provides for tradeoff selection, using a single parameter , between the treecost (Steiner cost) and the runtime efficiency. Further, the same algorithm may be used for delay optimization or treecost minimization simply by configuring the value of appropriately. We present theoretical and experimental analysis characterizing the problem and the performance of our algorithm. Theoretically, we (1) show that it is highly unlikely that there exists a polynomialtime algorithm with a performance guarantee of constant times optimum cost, (2) introduce metrics for measuring the asymmetry of graphs, and (3) show that the worstcase cost of the tree produced by our algorithm is at most twice the optimum cost times the asymmetry, for two of these asymmetry metrics. For graphs with bounded asymmetry, this gives constant ...
Multicast Routing with EndtoEnd Delay and Delay Variation Constraints
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 1995
"... We study the problem of constructing multicast trees to meet the quality of service requirements of realtime, interactive applications operating in highspeed packetswitched environments. In particular, we assume that multicast communication depends on (a) bounded delay along the paths from the so ..."
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Cited by 70 (2 self)
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We study the problem of constructing multicast trees to meet the quality of service requirements of realtime, interactive applications operating in highspeed packetswitched environments. In particular, we assume that multicast communication depends on (a) bounded delay along the paths from the source to each destination, and (b) bounded variation among the delays along these paths. We first establish that the problem of determining such a constrained tree is NPcomplete. We then derive heuristics that demonstrate good average case behavior in terms of the maximum interdestination delay variation of the final tree. In addition, our heuristics achieve their best performance under conditions typical of multicast scenarios in highspeed networks. We also show that it is possible to dynamically reorganize the initial tree in response to changes in the destination set, in a way that is minimally disruptive to the multicast session. Department of Computer Science North Carolina State Uni...
Multicast Routing and Its QoS Extension: Problems, Algorithms, and Protocols
 IEEE Network
, 2000
"... Multicast services have been increasingly used in large scale continuous media applications. The qualityofservice (QoS) requirements of these continuous media applications prompt the necessity for QoSdriven, constraintbased multicast routing. This article provides a comprehensive overview of exi ..."
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Cited by 64 (0 self)
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Multicast services have been increasingly used in large scale continuous media applications. The qualityofservice (QoS) requirements of these continuous media applications prompt the necessity for QoSdriven, constraintbased multicast routing. This article provides a comprehensive overview of existing multicast routing algorithms, protocols, and their QoS extension. In particular, we classify multicast routing problems according to their optimization functions and performance constraints, present basic routing algorithms in each problem class, and discuss their strengths and weakness. We also categorize existing multicast routing protocols, outline the issues and challenges in providing QoS in multicast routing, and point out possible future research directions.
CostDistance: Two Metric Network Design
 In Proceedings of the 41st Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2000
"... Abstract We present the CostDistance problem: finding a Steiner tree which optimizes the sum of edge costs along one metric and the sum of sourcesink distances along an unrelated second metric. We give the first known O(log k) randomized approximation scheme for CostDistance, where k is the numbe ..."
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Cited by 61 (7 self)
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Abstract We present the CostDistance problem: finding a Steiner tree which optimizes the sum of edge costs along one metric and the sum of sourcesink distances along an unrelated second metric. We give the first known O(log k) randomized approximation scheme for CostDistance, where k is the number of sources. We reduce many common network design problems to CostDistance, obtaining (in some cases) the first known logarithmic approximation for them. These problems include singlesink buyatbulk with variable pipe types between different sets of nodes, facility location with buyatbulk type costs on edges, and maybecast with combind cost and distance metrics. Our algorithm is also the algorithm of choice for several previous network design problems, due to its ease of implementation and fast running time. 1 Introduction Consider designing a network from the ground up. We are given a set of customers, and need to place various servers and network links in order to cheaply provide sufficient service. If we only need to place the servers, this becomes the facility location problem and constantapproximations are known. If a single server handles all customers, and we impose the additional constraint that the set of available network link types is the same for every pair of nodes (subject to constant scaling factors on cost) then this is the single sink buyatbulk problem. We give the first known approximation for the general version of this problem with both servers and network links. We reduce the network design problem to an elegant theoretical framework: the CostDistance problem. We are given a graph with a single distinguished sink node (server). Every edge in this graph can be measured along two metrics; the first will be called cost and the second will be length. Note that the two metrics are entirely independent, and that there may be any number of parallel edges in the graph. We are given a set of sources (customers). Our objective is to construct a Steiner tree connecting the sources to the sink while minimizing the combined sum of the cost of the edges in the tree and sum over sources of the weighted length from source to sink.
A SourceBased Algorithm For DelayConstrained MinimumCost Multicasting
, 1995
"... A new heuristic algorithm is presented for constructing minimumcost multicast trees with delay constraints. The new algorithm can set variable delay bounds on destinations and handles two variants of the network cost optimization goal: one minimizing the total cost (total bandwidth utilization) of ..."
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Cited by 54 (0 self)
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A new heuristic algorithm is presented for constructing minimumcost multicast trees with delay constraints. The new algorithm can set variable delay bounds on destinations and handles two variants of the network cost optimization goal: one minimizing the total cost (total bandwidth utilization) of the tree, and another minimizing the maximal link cost (the most congested link). Instead of the singlepass tree construction approach used in most previous heuristics, the new algorithm is based on a feasible search optimization method which starts with the minimumdelay tree and monotonically decreases the cost by iterative improvement of the delaybounded tree. The optimality of the costs of the delaybounded trees obtained with the new algorithm is analyzed by simulation. Depending on how tight the delay bounds are, the costs of the multicast trees obtained with the new algorithm are shown to be very close to the costs of the trees obtained by the Kou, Markowsky and Berman's algorithm. ...
The Multimedia Multicast Channel
 Proc. Third International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video
, 1992
"... The Multimedia Multicast Channel is a disseminationoriented communication abstraction providing a service analogous to that of a cable television broadcast channel. A source transmits multimedia information such as video and audio streams onto a channel, and a varying number of receivers "tune in" ..."
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Cited by 49 (10 self)
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The Multimedia Multicast Channel is a disseminationoriented communication abstraction providing a service analogous to that of a cable television broadcast channel. A source transmits multimedia information such as video and audio streams onto a channel, and a varying number of receivers "tune in" to the channel to receive a selected set of the streams. To support heterogeneity, each receiver may tailor the selected streams to meet individual needs through the use of filters. The design encourages a very loose coupling between the source and the receivers, promoting openloop control for the underlying network protocols. KEY WORDS: multicast, multimedia, dissemination, computer networks. This research has been supported in part by grants from DEC, IBM, NCR, NSF, TRW, and UC MICRO. The views expressed are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the supporters. 1 Introduction The Multimedia Multicast Channel (MMC) is a programming abstraction which supports dissemination...