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Kolmogorov complexity and the Recursion Theorem. Manuscript, submitted for publication
, 2005
"... Abstract. Several classes of diagonally nonrecursive (DNR) functions are characterized in terms of Kolmogorov complexity. In particular, a set of natural numbers A can wttcompute a DNR function iff there is a nontrivial recursive lower bound on the Kolmogorov complexity of the initial segments of ..."
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Cited by 47 (11 self)
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Abstract. Several classes of diagonally nonrecursive (DNR) functions are characterized in terms of Kolmogorov complexity. In particular, a set of natural numbers A can wttcompute a DNR function iff there is a nontrivial recursive lower bound on the Kolmogorov complexity of the initial segments of A. Furthermore, A can Turing compute a DNR function iff there is a nontrivial Arecursive lower bound on the Kolmogorov complexity of the initial segements of A. A is PAcomplete, that is, A can compute a {0, 1}valued DNR function, iff A can compute a function F such that F (n) is a string of length n and maximal Ccomplexity among the strings of length n. A ≥T K iff A can compute a function F such that F (n) is a string of length n and maximal Hcomplexity among the strings of length n. Further characterizations for these classes are given. The existence of a DNR function in a Turing degree is equivalent to the failure of the Recursion Theorem for this degree; thus the provided results characterize those Turing degrees in terms of Kolmogorov complexity which do no longer permit the usage of the Recursion Theorem. 1.
Degrees of random sets
, 1991
"... An explicit recursiontheoretic definition of a random sequence or random set of natural numbers was given by MartinLöf in 1966. Other approaches leading to the notions of nrandomness and weak nrandomness have been presented by Solovay, Chaitin, and Kurtz. We investigate the properties of nrando ..."
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Cited by 46 (4 self)
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An explicit recursiontheoretic definition of a random sequence or random set of natural numbers was given by MartinLöf in 1966. Other approaches leading to the notions of nrandomness and weak nrandomness have been presented by Solovay, Chaitin, and Kurtz. We investigate the properties of nrandom and weakly nrandom sequences with an emphasis on the structure of their Turing degrees. After an introduction and summary, in Chapter II we present several equivalent definitions of nrandomness and weak nrandomness including a new definition in terms of a forcing relation analogous to the characterization of ngeneric sequences in terms of Cohen forcing. We also prove that, as conjectured by Kurtz, weak nrandomness is indeed strictly weaker than nrandomness. Chapter III is concerned with intrinsic properties of nrandom sequences. The main results are that an (n + 1)random sequence A satisfies the condition A (n) ≡T A⊕0 (n) (strengthening a result due originally to Sacks) and that nrandom sequences satisfy a number of strong independence properties, e.g., if A ⊕ B is nrandom then A is nrandom relative to B. It follows that any countable distributive lattice can be embedded
Randomness, relativization, and Turing degrees
 J. Symbolic Logic
, 2005
"... We compare various notions of algorithmic randomness. First we consider relativized randomness. A set is nrandom if it is MartinLof random relative to . We show that a set is 2random if and only if there is a constant c such that infinitely many initial segments x of the set are cincompre ..."
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Cited by 40 (18 self)
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We compare various notions of algorithmic randomness. First we consider relativized randomness. A set is nrandom if it is MartinLof random relative to . We show that a set is 2random if and only if there is a constant c such that infinitely many initial segments x of the set are cincompressible: C(x) c. The `only if' direction was obtained independently by Joseph Miller. This characterization can be extended to the case of timebounded Ccomplexity.
Recursively Enumerable Reals and Chaitin Ω Numbers
"... A real is called recursively enumerable if it is the limit of a recursive, increasing, converging sequence of rationals. Following Solovay [23] and Chaitin [10] we say that an r.e. real dominates an r.e. real if from a good approximation of from below one can compute a good approximation of from b ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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A real is called recursively enumerable if it is the limit of a recursive, increasing, converging sequence of rationals. Following Solovay [23] and Chaitin [10] we say that an r.e. real dominates an r.e. real if from a good approximation of from below one can compute a good approximation of from below. We shall study this relation and characterize it in terms of relations between r.e. sets. Solovay's [23]like numbers are the maximal r.e. real numbers with respect to this order. They are random r.e. real numbers. The halting probability ofa universal selfdelimiting Turing machine (Chaitin's Ω number, [9]) is also a random r.e. real. Solovay showed that any Chaitin Ω number islike. In this paper we show that the converse implication is true as well: any Ωlike real in the unit interval is the halting probability of a universal selfdelimiting Turing machine.
Randomness in Computability Theory
, 2000
"... We discuss some aspects of algorithmic randomness and state some open problems in this area. The first part is devoted to the question "What is a computably random sequence?" Here we survey some of the approaches to algorithmic randomness and address some questions on these concepts. I ..."
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Cited by 28 (0 self)
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We discuss some aspects of algorithmic randomness and state some open problems in this area. The first part is devoted to the question "What is a computably random sequence?" Here we survey some of the approaches to algorithmic randomness and address some questions on these concepts. In the second part we look at the Turing degrees of MartinLof random sets. Finally, in the third part we deal with relativized randomness. Here we look at oracles which do not change randomness. 1980 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 03D80; Secondary 03D28. 1 Introduction Formalizations of the intuitive notions of computability and randomness are among the major achievements in the foundations of mathematics in the 20th century. It is commonly accepted that various equivalent formal computability notions  like Turing computability or recursiveness  which were introduced in the 1930s and 1940s adequately capture computability in the intuitive sense. This belief is expressed in the w...
Computational Randomness and Lowness
, 2001
"... . We prove that there are uncountably many sets that are low for the class of Schnorr random reals. We give a purely recursion theoretic characterization of these sets and show that they all have Turing degree incomparable to 0 0 . This contrasts with a result of Kucera and Terwijn [5] on sets tha ..."
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Cited by 26 (1 self)
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. We prove that there are uncountably many sets that are low for the class of Schnorr random reals. We give a purely recursion theoretic characterization of these sets and show that they all have Turing degree incomparable to 0 0 . This contrasts with a result of Kucera and Terwijn [5] on sets that are low for the class of MartinLof random reals. The Cantor space 2 ! is the set of infinite binary sequences; these are called reals and are identified with subsets of !. If oe 2 2 !! , that is, oe is a finite binary sequence, we denote by [oe] the set of reals that extend oe. These form a basis of clopen sets for the usual discrete topology on 2 ! . Write joej for the length of oe 2 2 !! . The Lebesgue measure on 2 ! is defined by stipulating that [oe] = 2 \Gammajoej . With every set U ` 2 !! we associate the open set S oe2U [oe]. When it is convenient, we confuse U with the open set associated to it, in particular we write U for the measure of the open set correspondi...
Uniform almost everywhere domination
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
, 2006
"... ABSTRACT. We explore the interaction between Lebesgue measure and dominating functions. We show, via both a priority construction and a forcing construction, that there is a function of incomplete degree that dominates almost all degrees. This answers a question of Dobrinen and Simpson, who showed t ..."
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Cited by 25 (1 self)
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ABSTRACT. We explore the interaction between Lebesgue measure and dominating functions. We show, via both a priority construction and a forcing construction, that there is a function of incomplete degree that dominates almost all degrees. This answers a question of Dobrinen and Simpson, who showed that such functions are related to the prooftheoretic strength of the regularity of Lebesgue measure for G δ sets. Our constructions essentially settle the reverse mathematical classification of this principle. 1.
A lower cone in the wtt degrees of nonintegral effective dimension
 In Proceedings of IMS workshop on Computational Prospects of Infinity
, 2006
"... ABSTRACT. For any rational number r, we show that there exists a set A (weak truthtable reducible to the halting problem) such that any set B weak truthtable reducible to it has effective Hausdorff dimension at most r, where A itself has dimension at least r. This implies, for any rational r, the e ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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ABSTRACT. For any rational number r, we show that there exists a set A (weak truthtable reducible to the halting problem) such that any set B weak truthtable reducible to it has effective Hausdorff dimension at most r, where A itself has dimension at least r. This implies, for any rational r, the existence of a wttlower cone of effective dimension r. 1.
Relativizing Chaitin’s halting probability
 J. Math. Log
"... Abstract. As a natural example of a 1random real, Chaitin proposed the halting probability Ω of a universal prefixfree machine. We can relativize this example by considering a universal prefixfree oracle machine U. Let Ω A U be the halting probability of U A; this gives a natural uniform way of p ..."
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Cited by 22 (7 self)
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Abstract. As a natural example of a 1random real, Chaitin proposed the halting probability Ω of a universal prefixfree machine. We can relativize this example by considering a universal prefixfree oracle machine U. Let Ω A U be the halting probability of U A; this gives a natural uniform way of producing an Arandom real for every A ∈ 2 ω. It is this operator which is our primary object of study. We can draw an analogy between the jump operator from computability theory and this Omega operator. But unlike the jump, which is invariant (up to computable permutation) under the choice of an effective enumeration of the partial computable functions, Ω A U can be vastly different for different choices of U. Even for a fixed U, there are oracles A = ∗ B such that Ω A U and Ω B U are 1random relative to each other. We prove this and many other interesting properties of Omega operators. We investigate these operators from the perspective of analysis, computability theory, and of course, algorithmic randomness. 1.