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135
Face Recognition: A Literature Survey
, 2000
"... ... This paper provides an uptodate critical survey of still and videobased face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an uptodate review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into ..."
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Cited by 976 (21 self)
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... This paper provides an uptodate critical survey of still and videobased face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an uptodate review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition,
From Few to many: Illumination cone models for face recognition under variable lighting and pose
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2001
"... We present a generative appearancebased method for recognizing human faces under variation in lighting and viewpoint. Our method exploits the fact that the set of images of an object in fixed pose, but under all possible illumination conditions, is a convex cone in the space of images. Using a smal ..."
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Cited by 479 (12 self)
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We present a generative appearancebased method for recognizing human faces under variation in lighting and viewpoint. Our method exploits the fact that the set of images of an object in fixed pose, but under all possible illumination conditions, is a convex cone in the space of images. Using a small number of training images of each face taken with different lighting directions, the shape and albedo of the face can be reconstructed. In turn, this reconstruction serves as a generative model that can be used to render—or synthesize—images of the face under novel poses and illumination conditions. The pose space is then sampled, and for each pose the corresponding illumination cone is approximated by a lowdimensional linear subspace whose basis vectors are estimated using the generative model. Our recognition algorithm assigns to a test image the identity of the closest approximated illumination cone (based on Euclidean distance within the image space). We test our face recognition method on 4050 images from the Yale Face Database B; these images contain 405 viewing conditions (9 poses ¢ 45 illumination conditions) for 10 individuals. The method performs almost without error, except on the most extreme lighting directions, and significantly outperforms popular recognition methods that do not use a generative model.
Efficient region tracking with parametric models of geometry and illumination
 PAMI
, 1998
"... Abstract—As an object moves through the field of view of a camera, the images of the object may change dramatically. This is not simply due to the translation of the object across the image plane. Rather, complications arise due to the fact that the object undergoes changes in pose relative to the v ..."
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Cited by 466 (23 self)
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Abstract—As an object moves through the field of view of a camera, the images of the object may change dramatically. This is not simply due to the translation of the object across the image plane. Rather, complications arise due to the fact that the object undergoes changes in pose relative to the viewing camera, changes in illumination relative to light sources, and may even become partially or fully occluded. In this paper, we develop an efficient, general framework for object tracking—one which addresses each of these complications. We first develop a computationally efficient method for handling the geometric distortions produced by changes in pose. We then combine geometry and illumination into an algorithm that tracks large image regions using no more computation than would be required to track with no accommodation for illumination changes. Finally, we augment these methods with techniques from robust statistics and treat occluded regions on the object as statistical outliers. Throughout, we present experimental results performed on live video sequences demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of our methods. Index Terms—Visual tracking, realtime vision, illumination, motion estimation, robust statistics.
Lambertian Reflectance and Linear Subspaces
, 2000
"... We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wi ..."
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Cited by 365 (20 self)
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We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wide variety of lighting conditions can be approximated accurately by a lowdimensional linear subspace, explaining prior empirical results. We also provide a simple analytic characterization of this linear space. We obtain these results by representing lighting using spherical harmonics and describing the effects of Lambertian materials as the analog of a convolution. These results allow us to construct algorithms for object recognition based on linear methods as well as algorithms that use convex optimization to enforce nonnegative lighting functions. Finally, we show a simple way to enforce nonnegative lighting when the images of an object lie near a 4D linear space. Research conducted w...
What is the Set of Images of an Object Under All Possible Lighting Conditions
 IEEE CVPR
, 1996
"... The appearance of a particular object depends on both the viewpoint from which it is observed and the light sources by which it is illuminated. If the appearance of two objects is never identical for any pose or lighting conditions, then in theory the objects can always be distinguished or recogni ..."
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Cited by 345 (27 self)
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The appearance of a particular object depends on both the viewpoint from which it is observed and the light sources by which it is illuminated. If the appearance of two objects is never identical for any pose or lighting conditions, then in theory the objects can always be distinguished or recognized. The question arises: What is the set of images of an object under all lighting conditions and pose? In this paper, ive consider only the set of images of an object under variable allumination (including multiple, extended light sources and attached shadows). We prove that the set of npixel images of a convex object with a Lambertian reflectance function, illuminated by an arbitrary number of point light sources at infinity, forms a convex polyhedral cone in IR " and that the dimension of this illumination cone equals the number of distinct surface normals. Furthermore, we show that the cone for a particular object can be constructed from three properly chosen images. Finally, we prove that the set of npixel images of an object of any shape and with an arbitrary reflectance function, seen under all possible illumination conditions, still forms a convex cone in Rn. Th.ese results immediately suggest certain approaches to object recognition. Throughout this paper, we ofler results demonstrating the empirical validity of the illumination cone representation. 1
Face Recognition: the Problem of Compensating for Changes in Illumination Direction
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... A face recognition system must recognize a face from a novel image despite the variations between images of the same face. A common approach to overcoming image variations because of changes in the illumination conditions is to use image representations that are relatively insensitive to these varia ..."
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Cited by 287 (3 self)
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A face recognition system must recognize a face from a novel image despite the variations between images of the same face. A common approach to overcoming image variations because of changes in the illumination conditions is to use image representations that are relatively insensitive to these variations. Examples of such representations are edge maps, image intensity derivatives, and images convolved with 2D Gaborlike filters. Here we present an empirical study that evaluates the sensitivity of these representations to changes in illumination, as well as viewpoint and facial expression. Our findings indicated that none of the representations considered is sufficient by itself to overcome image variations because of a change in the direction of illumination. Similar results were obtained for changes due to viewpoint and expression. Image representations that emphasized the horizontal features were found to be less sensitive to changes in the direction of illumination. However, systems...
Modal Matching for Correspondence and Recognition
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... Modal matching is a new method for establishing correspondences and computing canonical descriptions. The method is based on the idea of describing objects in terms of generalized symmetries, as defined by each object's eigenmodes. The resulting modal description is used for object recognition ..."
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Cited by 186 (7 self)
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Modal matching is a new method for establishing correspondences and computing canonical descriptions. The method is based on the idea of describing objects in terms of generalized symmetries, as defined by each object's eigenmodes. The resulting modal description is used for object recognition and categorization, where shape similarities are expressed as the amounts of modal deformation energy needed to align the two objects. In general, modes provide a globaltolocal ordering of shape deformation and thus allow for selecting which types of deformations are used in object alignment and comparison. In contrast to previous techniques, which required correspondence to be computed with an initial or prototype shape, modal matching utilizes a new type of finite element formulation that allows for an object's eigenmodes to be computed directly from available image information. This improved formulation provides greater generality and accuracy, and is applicable to data of any dimensionality. Correspondence results with 2D contour and point feature data are shown, and recognition experiments with 2D images of hand tools and airplanes are described.
An Efficient Representation for Irradiance Environment Maps
, 2001
"... We consider the rendering of diffuse objects under distant illumination, as specified by an environment map. Using an analytic expression for the irradiance in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients of the lighting, we show that one needs to compute and use only 9 coefficients, corresponding to th ..."
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Cited by 171 (10 self)
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We consider the rendering of diffuse objects under distant illumination, as specified by an environment map. Using an analytic expression for the irradiance in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients of the lighting, we show that one needs to compute and use only 9 coefficients, corresponding to the lowestfrequency modes of the illumination, in order to achieve average errors of only 1%. In other words, the irradiance is insensitive to high frequencies in the lighting, and is well approximated using only 9 parameters. In fact, we show that the irradiance can be procedurally represented simply as a quadratic polynomial in the cartesian components of the surface normal, and give explicit formulae. These observations lead to a simple and efficient procedural rendering algorithm amenable to hardware implementation, a prefiltering method up to three orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, and new representations for lighting design and imagebased rendering.
Acquiring linear subspaces for face recognition under variable lighting
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2005
"... Previous work has demonstrated that the image variation of many objects (human faces in particular) under variable lighting can be effectively modeled by low dimensional linear spaces, even when there are multiple light sources and shadowing. Basis images spanning this space are usually obtained in ..."
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Cited by 146 (2 self)
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Previous work has demonstrated that the image variation of many objects (human faces in particular) under variable lighting can be effectively modeled by low dimensional linear spaces, even when there are multiple light sources and shadowing. Basis images spanning this space are usually obtained in one of three ways: A large set of images of the object under different lighting conditions is acquired, and principal component analysis (PCA) is used to estimate a subspace. Alternatively, synthetic images are rendered from a 3D model (perhaps reconstructed from images) under point sources, and again PCA is used to estimate a subspace. Finally, images rendered from a 3D model under diffuse lighting based on spherical harmonics are directly used as basis images. In this paper, we show how to arrange physical lighting so that the acquired images of each object can be directly used as the basis vectors of a lowdimensional linear space, and that this subspace is close to those acquired by the other methods. More specifically, there exist configurations of k point light source directions, with k typically ranging from 5 to 9, such that by taking k images of an object under these single sources, the resulting subspace is an effective representation for recognition under a wide range of lighting conditions. Since the subspace is generated directly from real images, potentially complex and/or brittle intermediate steps such as 3D reconstruction can be completely avoided; nor is it necessary to acquire large numbers of training images or to physically construct complex diffuse (harmonic) light fields. We validate the use of subspaces constructed in this fashion within the context of face recognition.
ThreeDimensional Face Recognition
, 2005
"... An expressioninvariant 3D face recognition approach is presented. Our basic assumption is that facial expressions can be modelled as isometries of the facial surface. This allows to construct expressioninvariant representations of faces using the bendinginvariant canonical forms approach. The re ..."
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Cited by 113 (22 self)
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An expressioninvariant 3D face recognition approach is presented. Our basic assumption is that facial expressions can be modelled as isometries of the facial surface. This allows to construct expressioninvariant representations of faces using the bendinginvariant canonical forms approach. The result is an efficient and accurate face recognition algorithm, robust to facial expressions, that can distinguish between identical twins (the first two authors). We demonstrate a prototype system based on the proposed algorithm and compare its performance to classical face recognition methods. The numerical methods employed by our approach do not require the facial surface explicitly. The surface gradients field, or the surface metric, are sufficient for constructing the expressioninvariant representation of any given face. It allows us to perform the 3D face recognition task while avoiding the surface reconstruction stage.