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251
The linkprediction problem for social networks
 J. American Society for Information Science and Technology
"... Given a snapshot of a social network, can we infer which new interactions among its members are likely to occur in the near future? We formalize this question as the linkprediction problem, and we develop approaches to link prediction based on measures for analyzing the “proximity” of nodes in a ne ..."
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Cited by 478 (5 self)
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Given a snapshot of a social network, can we infer which new interactions among its members are likely to occur in the near future? We formalize this question as the linkprediction problem, and we develop approaches to link prediction based on measures for analyzing the “proximity” of nodes in a network. Experiments on large coauthorship networks suggest that information about future interactions can be extracted from network topology alone, and that fairly subtle measures for detecting node proximity can outperform more direct measures. 1
TopicSensitive PageRank
, 2002
"... In the original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results, a single PageRank vector is computed, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative "importance" of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we pr ..."
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Cited by 415 (10 self)
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In the original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results, a single PageRank vector is computed, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative "importance" of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we propose computing a set of PageRank vectors, biased using a set of representative topics, to capture more accurately the notion of importance with respect to a particular topic. By using these (precomputed) biased PageRank vectors to generate queryspecific importance scores for pages at query time, we show that we can generate more accurate rankings than with a single, generic PageRank vector. For ordinary keyword search queries, we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores for pages satisfying the query using the topic of the query keywords. For searches done in context (e.g., when the search query is performed by highlighting words in a Web page), we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores using the topic of the context in which the query appeared.
Personalizing search via automated analysis of interests and activities
, 2005
"... We formulate and study search algorithms that consider a user’s prior interactions with a wide variety of content to personalize that user’s current Web search. Rather than relying on the unrealistic assumption that people will precisely specify their intent when searching, we pursue techniques that ..."
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Cited by 193 (21 self)
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We formulate and study search algorithms that consider a user’s prior interactions with a wide variety of content to personalize that user’s current Web search. Rather than relying on the unrealistic assumption that people will precisely specify their intent when searching, we pursue techniques that leverage implicit information about the user’s interests. This information is used to rerank Web search results within a relevance feedback framework. We explore rich models of user interests, built from both searchrelated information, such as previously issued queries and previously visited Web pages, and other information about the user such as documents and email the user has read and created. Our research suggests that rich representations of the user and the corpus are important for personalization, but that it is possible to approximate these representations and provide efficient clientside algorithms for personalizing search. We show that such personalization algorithms can significantly improve on current Web search.
Authoritybased keyword search in databases
 TODS
"... The ObjectRank system applies authoritybased ranking to keyword search in databases modeled as labeled graphs. Conceptually, authority originates at the nodes (objects) containing the keywords and flows to objects according to their semantic connections. Each node is ranked according to its authori ..."
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Cited by 166 (12 self)
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The ObjectRank system applies authoritybased ranking to keyword search in databases modeled as labeled graphs. Conceptually, authority originates at the nodes (objects) containing the keywords and flows to objects according to their semantic connections. Each node is ranked according to its authority with respect to the particular
Topicsensitive pagerank: A contextsensitive ranking algorithm for web search
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 2003
"... Abstract—The original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results computes a single vector, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative “importance ” of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we propose ..."
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Cited by 145 (2 self)
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Abstract—The original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results computes a single vector, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative “importance ” of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we propose computing a set of PageRank vectors, biased using a set of representative topics, to capture more accurately the notion of importance with respect to a particular topic. For ordinary keyword search queries, we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores for pages satisfying the query using the topic of the query keywords. For searches done in context (e.g., when the search query is performed by highlighting words in a Web page), we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores using the topic of the context in which the query appeared. By using linear combinations of these (precomputed) biased PageRank vectors to generate contextspecific importance scores for pages at query time, we show that we can generate more accurate rankings than with a single, generic PageRank vector. We describe techniques for efficiently implementing a largescale search system based on the topicsensitive PageRank scheme. Index Terms—Web search, web graph, link analysis, PageRank, search in context, personalized search, ranking algorithm.
Deeper inside pagerank
 Internet Mathematics
, 2004
"... Abstract. This paper serves as a companion or extension to the “Inside PageRank” paper by Bianchini et al. [Bianchini et al. 03]. It is a comprehensive survey of all issues associated with PageRank, covering the basic PageRank model, available and recommended solution methods, storage issues, existe ..."
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Cited by 142 (4 self)
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Abstract. This paper serves as a companion or extension to the “Inside PageRank” paper by Bianchini et al. [Bianchini et al. 03]. It is a comprehensive survey of all issues associated with PageRank, covering the basic PageRank model, available and recommended solution methods, storage issues, existence, uniqueness, and convergence properties, possible alterations to the basic model, suggested alternatives to the traditional solution methods, sensitivity and conditioning, and finally the updating problem. We introduce a few new results, provide an extensive reference list, and speculate about exciting areas of future research. 1.
Extrapolation Methods for Accelerating PageRank Computations
 In Proceedings of the Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference
, 2003
"... We present a novel algorithm for the fast computation of PageRank, a hyperlinkbased estimate of the "importance" of Web pages. The original PageRank algorithm uses the Power Method to compute successive iterates that converge to the principal eigenvector of the Markov matrix representing the Web li ..."
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Cited by 134 (13 self)
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We present a novel algorithm for the fast computation of PageRank, a hyperlinkbased estimate of the "importance" of Web pages. The original PageRank algorithm uses the Power Method to compute successive iterates that converge to the principal eigenvector of the Markov matrix representing the Web link graph. The algorithm presented here, called Quadratic Extrapolation, accelerates the convergence of the Power Method by periodically subtracting off estimates of the nonprincipal eigenvectors from the current iterate of the Power Method. In Quadratic Extrapolation, we take advantage of the fact that the first eigenvalueof a Markov matrix is known to be 1 to compute the nonprincipal eigenvectorsusing successiveiterates of the Power Method. Empirically, we show that using Quadratic Extrapolation speeds up PageRank computation by 50300% on a Web graph of 80 million nodes, with minimal overhead.
Exploiting the Block Structure of the Web for Computing PageRank
, 2003
"... The web link graph has a nested block structure: the vast majority of hyperlinks link pages on a host to other pages on the same host, and many of those that do not link pages within the same domain. We show how to exploit this structure to speed up the computation of PageRank by a 3stage alg ..."
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Cited by 129 (5 self)
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The web link graph has a nested block structure: the vast majority of hyperlinks link pages on a host to other pages on the same host, and many of those that do not link pages within the same domain. We show how to exploit this structure to speed up the computation of PageRank by a 3stage algorithm whereby (1) the local PageRanks of pages for each host are computed independently using the link structure of that host, (2) these local PageRanks are then weighted by the "importance" of the corresponding host, and (3) the standard PageRank algorithm is then run using as its starting vector the weighted concatenation of the local PageRanks. Empirically, this algorithm speeds up the computation of PageRank by a factor of 2 in realistic scenarios. Further, we develop a variant of this algorithm that efficiently computes many different "personalized" PageRanks, and a variant that efficiently recomputes PageRank after node updates.
Local graph partitioning using PageRank vectors
 In FOCS ’06: Proceedings of the 47th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2006
"... A local graph partitioning algorithm finds a cut near a specified starting vertex, with a running time that depends largely on the size of the small side of the cut, rather than the size of the input graph. In this paper, we present an algorithm for local graph partitioning using personalized PageRa ..."
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Cited by 100 (22 self)
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A local graph partitioning algorithm finds a cut near a specified starting vertex, with a running time that depends largely on the size of the small side of the cut, rather than the size of the input graph. In this paper, we present an algorithm for local graph partitioning using personalized PageRank vectors. We develop an improved algorithm for computing approximate PageRank vectors, and derive a mixing result for PageRank vectors similar to that for random walks. Using this mixing result, we derive an analogue of the Cheeger inequality for PageRank, which shows that a sweep over a single PageRank vector can find a cut with conductance φ, provided there exists a cut with conductance at most f(φ), where f(φ) is Ω(φ 2 / log m), and where m is the number of edges in the graph. By extending this result to approximate PageRank vectors, we develop an algorithm for local graph partitioning that can be used to a find a cut with conductance at most φ, whose small side has volume at least 2 b, in time O(2 b log 3 m/φ 2). Using this local graph partitioning algorithm as a subroutine, we obtain an algorithm that finds a cut with conductance φ and approximately optimal balance in time O(m log 4 m/φ 3). 1
Algorithms for estimating relative importance in networks
 In Proceedings of KDD 2003
, 2003
"... Large and complex graphs representing relationships among sets of entities are an increasingly common focus of interest in data analysis—examples include social networks, Web graphs, telecommunication networks, and biological networks. In interactive analysis of such data a natural query is “which e ..."
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Cited by 96 (5 self)
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Large and complex graphs representing relationships among sets of entities are an increasingly common focus of interest in data analysis—examples include social networks, Web graphs, telecommunication networks, and biological networks. In interactive analysis of such data a natural query is “which entities are most important in the network relative to a particular individual or set of individuals? ” We investigate the problem of answering such queries in this paper, focusing in particular on defining and computing the importance of nodes in a graph relative to one or more root nodes. We define a general framework and a number of different algorithms, building on ideas from social networks, graph theory, Markov models, and Web graph analysis. We experimentally evaluate the different properties of these algorithms on toy graphs and demonstrate how our approach can be used to study relative importance in realworld networks including a network of interactions among September 11th terrorists, a network of collaborative research in biotechnology among companies and universities, and a network of coauthorship relationships among computer science researchers.