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Parallel and Distributed Simulation of Discrete Event Systems
, 1995
"... The achievements attained in accelerating the simulation of the dynamics of complex discrete event systems using parallel or distributed multiprocessing environments are comprehensively presented. While parallel discrete event simulation (DES) governs the evolution of the system over simulated time ..."
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Cited by 103 (17 self)
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The achievements attained in accelerating the simulation of the dynamics of complex discrete event systems using parallel or distributed multiprocessing environments are comprehensively presented. While parallel discrete event simulation (DES) governs the evolution of the system over simulated time in an iterative SIMD way, distributed DES tries to spatially decompose the event structure underlying the system, and executes event occurrences in spatial subregions by logical processes (LPs) usually assigned to different (physical) processing elements. Synchronization protocols are necessary in this approach to avoid timing inconsistencies and to guarantee the preservation of event causalities across LPs. Included in the survey are discussions on the sources and levels of parallelism, synchronous vs. asynchronous simulation and principles of LP simulation. In the context of conservative LP simulation (Chandy/Misra/Bryant) deadlock avoidance and deadlock detection/recovery strategies, Con...
Parallel simulation today
 Annals of Operations Research
, 1994
"... ej 4r.,,D I " h",' _ k,) r,m '3'. IC,.4 Z _ O ..."
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Cited by 78 (17 self)
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ej 4r.,,D I " h",' _ k,) r,m '3'. IC,.4 Z _ O
An analysis of rollbackbased simulation
 ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
, 1991
"... We present and analyze a general model of rollback in parallel processing, The analysis points out three possible modes where rollback may become excessive; we provide an example of each type. We identify the parameters that determme a stability, or efficiency region for the simulation. Our analysis ..."
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Cited by 42 (0 self)
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We present and analyze a general model of rollback in parallel processing, The analysis points out three possible modes where rollback may become excessive; we provide an example of each type. We identify the parameters that determme a stability, or efficiency region for the simulation. Our analysis suggests the possibility of a dangerous “phasetransition ” from stabil ity to instability y in the parameter space. In particular, a rollback algorlthm may work efficiently for a small system but become inefficient for a large system. Moreover, for a given system, it may work quickly for a while and then suddenly slow down On the positive side, we give a tunable algorlthm, Filtered Rollback, that is designed to avoid the failure modes, Under appropriate assumptions, we provide a rigorous mathematical proof that Faltered Rollback m efficient, if implemented on a reasonably efficient multiprocessor. In particular, we show that the average time r to complete the simulation of a system with N nodes and R events on a pprocessor PRAM satisfies
Optimal Memory Management for Time Warp Parallel Simulation
 ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation
, 1991
"... Recently there has been a great deal of interest in performance evaluation of parallel simulation. Most work is devoted to the time complexity and assumes that the amount of memory available for parallel simulation is unlimited. This paper studies the space complexity of parallel simulation. Our goa ..."
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Cited by 33 (0 self)
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Recently there has been a great deal of interest in performance evaluation of parallel simulation. Most work is devoted to the time complexity and assumes that the amount of memory available for parallel simulation is unlimited. This paper studies the space complexity of parallel simulation. Our goal is to design an efficient memory management protocol which guarantees that the memory consumption of parallel simulation is of the same order as sequential simulation. (Such an algorithm is referred to as optimal.) We first derive the relationships among the space complexities of sequential simulation, ChandyMisra simulation, and Time Warp simulation. We show that ChandyMisra may consume more storage than sequential simulation, or vice versa. Then we show that Time Warp never consumes less memory than sequential simulation. Then we describe cancelback, an optimal Time Warp memory management protocol proposed by Jefferson. Although cancelback is considered as a complete solution for the storage management problem in Time Warp, some efficiency issues in implementing this algorithm must be considered. In this paper, we propose an optimal algorithm called artificial rollback. We show that this algorithm is easy to implement and analyze. An implementation of artificial rollback is given, which is integrated with processor scheduling to adjust the memory consumption rate based on the amount of free storage available in the system.
Asynchronous Parallel Discrete Event Simulation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN AND CYBERNETICS
, 1996
"... Complex models may have model components distributed over a network and generally require significant execution times. The field of parallel and distributed simulation has grown over the past fifteen years to accommodate the need of simulating the complex models using a distributed versus sequential ..."
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Cited by 32 (3 self)
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Complex models may have model components distributed over a network and generally require significant execution times. The field of parallel and distributed simulation has grown over the past fifteen years to accommodate the need of simulating the complex models using a distributed versus sequential method. In particular, asynchronous parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has been widely studied, and yet we envision greater acceptance of this methodology as more readers are exposed to PDES introductions that carefully integrate realworld applications. With this in mind, we present two key methodologies (con servative and optimistic) which have been adopted as solutions to PDES systems. We discuss PDES terminology and methodology under the umbrella of the personal communications services application.
Computing Global Virtual Time in SharedMemory Multiprocessors
 ACM TRANS. MODEL. COMPUT. SIMUL
, 1997
"... ..."
SelfAdaptive Logical Processes: the Probabilistic Distributed Simulation Protocol
 In Proc. of the 27 th Annual Simulation Symposium
, 1994
"... A probabilistic distributed discrete event simulation strategy is developed as a performance efficient compromise between the two classical approaches in parallel and distributed simulation, the conservative and the optimistic approach. It weakens the conservative "block until safetoprocess"rule ..."
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Cited by 25 (12 self)
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A probabilistic distributed discrete event simulation strategy is developed as a performance efficient compromise between the two classical approaches in parallel and distributed simulation, the conservative and the optimistic approach. It weakens the conservative "block until safetoprocess"rule in a sense that if the time instant of the occurrence of an external event is in the time interval [s; t], it allows progressing simulation up until the forecasted next event instant b t(O), s b t(O) t, but further progression only with controlled probability. b t(O) is an estimate based on the arrival instant differences O = (ffi 1 ; ffi 2 ; : : : ffi n ) observed during a time window by some logical (simulation) process. Compared to the optimistic strategy it prevents from propagating incorrect computations too far ahead into the simulated future, and thus avoids unnecessary communication overhead by breaking rollback cascades as early as possible. The arrival patterns observed in O are ...
Design and Performance Analysis of Hardware Support for Parallel Simulations
, 1993
"... It has been established elsewhere [Reyn92] that hardware to support parallel discrete event simulations (PDES) is desirable. We describe the steps leading to the implementation of a hardwarebased framework to support PDES. We begin with an exploration of the criteria necessary to make such a framew ..."
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Cited by 14 (7 self)
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It has been established elsewhere [Reyn92] that hardware to support parallel discrete event simulations (PDES) is desirable. We describe the steps leading to the implementation of a hardwarebased framework to support PDES. We begin with an exploration of the criteria necessary to make such a framework both practical and useful, concluding that maintenance of sequential consistency is sufficient, while "observable" sequential consistency is more desirable but difficult to attain. We derive a functional design based on these criteria, and from that derive a prototype design. Also, we establish the utility of our design, showing that computation of critical global values, such as global virtual time, can be done in times two orders of magnitude or better than typical event times in discrete event simulations. ############################################################################################## 1. Introduction The need for special purpose hardware to support efficient parallel d...
PORTS: A Parallel, Optimistic, RealTime Simulator
 Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Simulation (PADS
, 1994
"... This paper describes issues concerning the design of an optimistic parallel discrete event simulation system that executes in environments that impose realtime constraints on the simulator's execution. Two key problems must be addressed by such a system. First the timing characteristics of the para ..."
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Cited by 13 (8 self)
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This paper describes issues concerning the design of an optimistic parallel discrete event simulation system that executes in environments that impose realtime constraints on the simulator's execution. Two key problems must be addressed by such a system. First the timing characteristics of the parallel simulator must be sufficiently predictable to allow one to guarantee that realtime deadlines for completing simulation computations will be met. Second, the optimistic computation must be able to interact with its surrounding environment with as little latency as possible, necessitating rapid commitment of I/O operations. To address the first question, we show that optimistic simulators that never send incorrect messages (sometimes called "aggressiveno risk" simulators) provide sufficient predictability to allow traditional schedulability analysis techniques commonly used in realtime systems to be applied. We show that incremental state saving techniques introduce sufficient unpredic...
A Fast Asynchronous GVT Algorithm for Shared Memory Multiprocessor Architectures
, 1995
"... The computation of Global Virtual Time is of fundamental importance in Time Warp based Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Systems. Shared memory multiprocessor architectures can support interprocess communication with much smaller overheads than distributed memory systems. This paper presents a new, ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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The computation of Global Virtual Time is of fundamental importance in Time Warp based Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Systems. Shared memory multiprocessor architectures can support interprocess communication with much smaller overheads than distributed memory systems. This paper presents a new, completely asynchronous, Gvt algorithm which provides very fast and accurate Gvt estimation with significantly lower overhead than previous approaches. The algorithm presented is able to support more efficient memory management, termination, and other global control mechanisms The Gvt algorithm described enables any Time Warp entity to compute Gvt at any time without slowing down other entities, in particular, those executing on the critical path. Experimental results are presented for a shared memory Time Warp system that employs a two tiered distributed memory management scheme. The proof of the correctness and the accuracy of the algorithm are also presented. Finally, some suggestions on...