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53
Semantic database modeling: Survey, applications, and research issues
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1987
"... Most common database management systems represent information in a simple recordbased format. Semantic modeling provides richer data structuring capabilities for database applications. In particular, research in this area has articulated a number of constructs that provide mechanisms for representi ..."
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Cited by 240 (3 self)
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Most common database management systems represent information in a simple recordbased format. Semantic modeling provides richer data structuring capabilities for database applications. In particular, research in this area has articulated a number of constructs that provide mechanisms for representing structurally complex interrelations among data typically arising in commercial applications. In general terms, semantic modeling complements work on knowledge representation (in artificial intelligence) and on the new generation of database models based on the objectoriented paradigm of programming languages. This paper presents an indepth discussion of semantic data modeling. It reviews the philosophical motivations of semantic models, including the need for highlevel modeling abstractions and the reduction of semantic overloading of data type constructors. It then provides a tutorial introduction to the primary components of semantic models, which are the explicit representation of objects, attributes of and relationships among objects, type constructors for building complex types, ISA relationships, and derived schema components. Next, a survey of the prominent semantic models in the literature is presented. Further, since a broad area of research has developed around semantic modeling, a number of related topics based on these models are discussed, including data languages, graphical interfaces, theoretical investigations, and physical implementation strategies.
On The Power Of Languages For The Manipulation Of Complex Objects
 In Proceedings of International Workshop on Theory and Applications of Nested Relations and Complex Objects
, 1993
"... Various models and languages for describing and manipulating hierarchically structured data have been proposed. Algebraic, calculusbased and logicprogramming oriented languages have all been considered. This paper presents a general model for complex objects, and languages for it based on the thre ..."
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Cited by 123 (6 self)
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Various models and languages for describing and manipulating hierarchically structured data have been proposed. Algebraic, calculusbased and logicprogramming oriented languages have all been considered. This paper presents a general model for complex objects, and languages for it based on the three paradigms. The algebraic language generalizes those presented in the literature; it is shown to be related to the functional style of programming advocated by Backus. The notion of domain independence familiar from relational databases is defined, and syntactic restrictions (referred to as safety conditions) on calculus queries are formulated, that guarantee domain independence. The main results are: The domainindependent calculus, the safe calculus, the algebra, and the logicprogramming oriented language have equivalent expressive power. In particular, recursive queries, such as the transitive closure, can be expressed in each of the languages. For this result, the algebra needs the pow...
The Use of Information Capacity in Schema Integration and Translation
 In VLDB
, 1993
"... In this paper, we carefully explore the assumptions behind using information capacity equivalence as a measure of correctness for judging transformed schemas in schema integration and translation methodologies. We present a classification of common integration and translation tasks based on their op ..."
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Cited by 79 (10 self)
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In this paper, we carefully explore the assumptions behind using information capacity equivalence as a measure of correctness for judging transformed schemas in schema integration and translation methodologies. We present a classification of common integration and translation tasks based on their operational goals and derive from them the relative information capacity requirements of the original and transformed schemas. We show that for many tasks, information capacity equivalence of the schemas is not strictly required. Based on this, we present a new definition of correctness that reflects each undertaken task. We then examine existing methodologies and show how anomalies can arise when using those that do not meet the proposed correctness criteria. 1 Introduction Formal work on schema equivalence has largely been ignored within practical schema integration and translation tools. Practitioners have felt that theoretical work is too narrow in scope to be applicable to the problems ...
Relational Expressive Power of Constraint Query Languages
 Journal of the ACM
, 1995
"... The expressive power of firstorder query languages with several classes of equality and inequality constraints is studied in this paper. We settle the conjecture that recursive queries such as parity test and transitive closure cannot be expressed in the relational calculus augmented with polynomia ..."
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Cited by 79 (18 self)
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The expressive power of firstorder query languages with several classes of equality and inequality constraints is studied in this paper. We settle the conjecture that recursive queries such as parity test and transitive closure cannot be expressed in the relational calculus augmented with polynomial inequality constraints over the reals. Furthermore, noting that relational queries exhibit several forms of genericity, we establish a number of collapse results of the following form: The class of generic boolean queries expressible in the relational calculus augmented with a given class of constraints coincides with the class of queries expressible in the relational calculus (with or without an order relation). We prove such results for both the natural and activedomain semantics. As a consequence, the relational calculus augmented with polynomial inequalities expresses the same classes of generic boolean queries under both the natural and activedomain semantics. In the course of proving...
Formal Models Of Web Queries
 In Proc. of ACM PODS
, 1997
"... We present a new formal model of query and computation on the Web. We focus on two important aspects that distinguish the access to Web data from the access to a standard database system: the navigational nature of the access and the lack of concurrency control. We show that these two issues have si ..."
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Cited by 79 (3 self)
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We present a new formal model of query and computation on the Web. We focus on two important aspects that distinguish the access to Web data from the access to a standard database system: the navigational nature of the access and the lack of concurrency control. We show that these two issues have significant effects on the computability of queries. To illustrate the ideas and how they can be used in practice for designing appropriate Web query languages, we consider a particular query language, the Web calculus, an abstraction and extension of the practical Web query language WebSQL. c fl1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Key words: World Wide Web, Web Queries, Query Languages, Computability, Formal Models 1. INTRODUCTION Tools and techniques for retrieving information from the World Wide Web are rapidly being developed [9, 10, 13, 4, 12, 8]. Most of these works are based on the metaphor of the Web as a database, in order to carry over and adapt familiar query languages s...
Schema Equivalence in Heterogeneous Systems: Bridging Theory and Practice
, 1993
"... Current theoretical work offers measures of schema equivalence based on the information capacity of schemas. This work is based on the existence of abstract functions satisfying various restrictions between the sets of all instances of two schemas. In considering schemas that arise in practice, howe ..."
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Cited by 67 (2 self)
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Current theoretical work offers measures of schema equivalence based on the information capacity of schemas. This work is based on the existence of abstract functions satisfying various restrictions between the sets of all instances of two schemas. In considering schemas that arise in practice, however, it is not clear how to reason about the existence of such abstract functions. Further, these notions of equivalence tend to be too liberal in that schemas are often considered equivalent when a practitioner would consider them to be different. As a result, practical integration methodologies have not utilized this theoretical foundation and most of them have relied on adhoc approaches. We present results that seek to bridge this gap. First, we consider the problem of deciding information capacity equivalence and dominance of schemas that occur in practice, i.e., those that can express inheritance and simple integrity constraints. We show that this problem is undecidable. This undecidab...
Thematic Map Modeling
, 1989
"... We study here how to provide the designer of geographic databases with a database query language extensible and customizable. The model presented here is a first step toward a high level spatial query language adapted to the manipulation of thematic maps. For this, we take as an example a toy applic ..."
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Cited by 59 (7 self)
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We study here how to provide the designer of geographic databases with a database query language extensible and customizable. The model presented here is a first step toward a high level spatial query language adapted to the manipulation of thematic maps. For this, we take as an example a toy application on thematic maps, and show by using a complex objects algebra that application dependent geometric operations can be expressed through an extension of the replace operator of [AB88].
The Power of Languages for the Manipulation of Complex Values
 VLDB Journal
, 1995
"... Abstract. Various models and languages for describing and manipulating hierarchically structured data have been proposed. Algebraic, calculusbased, and logicprogramming oriented languages have all been considered. This article presents a general model for complex values (i.e., values with hierarc ..."
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Cited by 50 (0 self)
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Abstract. Various models and languages for describing and manipulating hierarchically structured data have been proposed. Algebraic, calculusbased, and logicprogramming oriented languages have all been considered. This article presents a general model for complex values (i.e., values with hierarchical structures), and languages for it based on the three paradigms. The algebraic language generalizes those presented in the literature; it is shown to be related to the functional style of programming advocated by Backus (1978). The notion of domain independence (from relational databases) is defined, and syntactic restrictions (referred to as safety conditions) on calculus queries are formulated to guarantee domain independence. The main results are: The domainindependent calculus, the safe calculus, the algebra, and the logicprogramming oriented language have equivalent expressive power. In particular, recursive queries, such as the transitive closure, can be expressed in each of the languages. For this result, the algebra needs the powerset operation. A more restricted version of safety is presented, such that the restricted safe calculus is equivalent to the algebra without the powerset. The results are extended to the case where arbitrary functions and predicates are used in the languages. Key Words. Database, query language, complex value, complex object, database model.
On the expressive power of database queries with intermediate types
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1991
"... The setheight of a complex object type is defined to be its level of nesting of the set construct. In a query of the complex object calculus which maps a database D to an output type T,anintermediate type is a type which is used by some variable of the query, but which is not present in D or T.Fore ..."
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Cited by 45 (2 self)
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The setheight of a complex object type is defined to be its level of nesting of the set construct. In a query of the complex object calculus which maps a database D to an output type T,anintermediate type is a type which is used by some variable of the query, but which is not present in D or T.Foreachk, i ≥ 0 we define CALCk,i to be the family of calculus queries mapping from and to types with setheight ≤ k and using intermediate types with setheight ≤ i. In particular, CALC0,0 is the classical relational calculus, and CALC0,1 is equivalent to the family of secondorder (relational) queries. Several results concerning these families of languages are obtained. A primary focus is on the families CALC0,i, which map relations to relations. Upper and lower bounds in terms of hyperexponential time and space on the complexity of these families are provided. The CALC0,i hierarchy does not collapse with respect to expressive power. The union ∪0≤iCALC0,i is exactly the family of elementary queries, i.e., queries with hyperexponential complexity. The expressive power of queries from the complex object calculus interpreted using semantics based on the use of arbitrarily large finite or infinite set of invented values is studied. Under these semantics, the expressive power of the relational calculus is not increased, and the CALC0,i hierarchy collapses at CALC0,1. In general, queries with these semantics may not be computable. We also consider an alternative semantics which yields a family of queries equivalent to the computable queries. 1