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Constraint Logic Programming: A Survey
"... Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in differe ..."
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Cited by 771 (23 self)
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Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in different areas of applications. In this survey of CLP, a primary goal is to give a systematic description of the major trends in terms of common fundamental concepts. The three main parts cover the theory, implementation issues, and programming for applications.
The Lorel Query Language for Semistructured Data
 International Journal on Digital Libraries
, 1997
"... We present the Lorel language, designed for querying semistructured data. Semistructured data is becoming more and more prevalent, e.g., in structured documents such as HTML and when performing simple integration of data from multiple sources. Traditional data models and query languages are inapprop ..."
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Cited by 662 (25 self)
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We present the Lorel language, designed for querying semistructured data. Semistructured data is becoming more and more prevalent, e.g., in structured documents such as HTML and when performing simple integration of data from multiple sources. Traditional data models and query languages are inappropriate, since semistructured data often is irregular, some data is missing, similar concepts are represented using different types, heterogeneous sets are present, or object structure is not fully known. Lorel is a userfriendly language in the SQL/OQL style for querying such data effectively. For wide applicability, the simple object model underlying Lorel can be viewed as an extension of ODMG and the language as an extension of OQL. The main novelties of the Lorel language are: (i) extensive use of coercion to relieve the user from the strict typing of OQL, which is inappropriate for semistructured data
Typing and Subtyping for Mobile Processes
 MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1996
"... The picalculus is a process algebra that supports process mobility by focusing on the communication of channels. Milner's ..."
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Cited by 244 (16 self)
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The picalculus is a process algebra that supports process mobility by focusing on the communication of channels. Milner's
Language primitives and type discipline for structured communicationbased programming
 In ESOP’98, volume 1381 of LNCS
, 1998
"... Session primitives and types provide a flexible programming style for structured interaction, and are used to statically check the safe and consistent composition of protocols in communicationcentric distributed software. Unfortunately authors working on session types have recently realised that so ..."
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Cited by 199 (47 self)
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Session primitives and types provide a flexible programming style for structured interaction, and are used to statically check the safe and consistent composition of protocols in communicationcentric distributed software. Unfortunately authors working on session types have recently realised that some of the previously published systems fail to satisfy the basic theorems of Subject Reduction and Type Safety. This report discusses the issues involved in higherorder session communication, presents a formulation of the recursive types as well as proofs of the Subject Reduction and Type Safety Theorems of the original session typing system by HondaVasconcelosKubo in ESOP’98. It also proposes a variant which allows a more liberal higherorder session communication, based on an idea of Gay and Hole.
Records for Logic Programming
 Journal of Logic Programming
, 1994
"... CFT is a new constraint system providing records as logical data structure for constraint (logic) programming. It can be seen as a generalization of the rational tree system employed in Prolog II, where finergrained constraints are used, and where subtrees are identified by keywords rather than by ..."
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Cited by 95 (17 self)
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CFT is a new constraint system providing records as logical data structure for constraint (logic) programming. It can be seen as a generalization of the rational tree system employed in Prolog II, where finergrained constraints are used, and where subtrees are identified by keywords rather than by position. CFT is defined by a firstorder structure consisting of socalled feature trees. Feature trees generalize the ordinary trees corresponding to firstorder terms by having their edges labeled with field names called features. The mathematical semantics given by the feature tree structure is complemented with a logical semantics given by five axiom schemes, which we conjecture to comprise a complete axiomatization of the feature tree structure. We present a decision method for CFT, which decides entailment / disentailment between possibly existentially quantified constraints. Since CFT satisfies the independence property, our decision method can also be employed for checking the sat...
The Polymorphic Picalculus: Theory and Implementation
, 1995
"... We investigate whether the πcalculus is able to serve as a good foundation for the design and implementation of a stronglytyped concurrent programming language. The first half of the dissertation examines whether the πcalculus supports a simple type system which is flexible enough to provide a su ..."
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Cited by 95 (0 self)
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We investigate whether the πcalculus is able to serve as a good foundation for the design and implementation of a stronglytyped concurrent programming language. The first half of the dissertation examines whether the πcalculus supports a simple type system which is flexible enough to provide a suitable foundation for the type system of a concurrent programming language. The second half of the dissertation considers how to implement the πcalculus efficiently, starting with an abstract machine for πcalculus and finally presenting a compilation of πcalculus to C. We start the dissertation by presenting a simple, structural type system for πcalculus, and then, after proving the soundness of our type system, show how to infer principal types for πterms. This simple type system can be extended to include useful typetheoretic constructions such as recursive types and higherorder polymorphism. Higherorder polymorphism is important, since it gives us the ability to implement abstract datatypes in a typesafe manner, thereby providing a greater degree of modularity for πcalculus programs. The functional computational paradigm plays an important part in many programming languages. It is wellknown that the πcalculus can encode functional computation. We go further and show that the type structure of λterms is preserved by such encodings, in the sense that we can relate the type of a λterm to the type of its encoding in the πcalculus. This means that a πcalculus programming language can genuinely support typed functional programming as a special case. An efficient implementation of πcalculus is necessary if we wish to consider πcalculus as an operational foundation for concurrent programming. We first give a simple abstract machine for πcalculus and prove it correct. We then show how this abstract machine inspires a simple, but efficient, compilation of πcalculus to C (which now forms the basis of the Pict programming language implementation).
πCalculus, Internal Mobility, and AgentPassing Calculi
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... The πcalculus is a process algebra which originates from CCS and permits a natural modelling of mobility (i.e., dynamic reconfigurations of the process linkage) using communication of names. Previous research has shown that the πcalculus has much greater expressiveness than CCS, but also a much mo ..."
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Cited by 80 (11 self)
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The πcalculus is a process algebra which originates from CCS and permits a natural modelling of mobility (i.e., dynamic reconfigurations of the process linkage) using communication of names. Previous research has shown that the πcalculus has much greater expressiveness than CCS, but also a much more complex mathematical theory. The primary goal of this work is to understand the reasons of this gap. Another goal is to compare the expressiveness of namepassing calculi, i.e., calculi like πcalculus where mobility is achieved via exchange of names, and that of agentpassing calculi, i.e., calculi where mobility is achieved via exchange of agents. We separate the mobility mechanisms of the πcalculus into two, respectively called internal mobility and external mobility. The study of the subcalculus which only uses internal mobility, called I, suggests that internal mobility is responsible for much of the expressiveness of the πcalculus, whereas external mobility is responsible for many of...
On perfect supercompilation
 Journal of Functional Programming
, 1996
"... We extend positive supercompilation to handle negative as well as positive information. This is done by instrumenting the underlying unfold rules with a small rewrite system that handles constraints on terms, thereby ensuring perfect information propagation. We illustrate this by transforming a na ..."
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Cited by 79 (3 self)
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We extend positive supercompilation to handle negative as well as positive information. This is done by instrumenting the underlying unfold rules with a small rewrite system that handles constraints on terms, thereby ensuring perfect information propagation. We illustrate this by transforming a naively specialised string matcher into an optimal one. The presented algorithm is guaranteed to terminate by means of generalisation steps.
Coinductive Axiomatization of Recursive Type Equality and Subtyping
, 1998
"... e present new sound and complete axiomatizations of type equality and subtype inequality for a firstorder type language with regular recursive types. The rules are motivated by coinductive characterizations of type containment and type equality via simulation and bisimulation, respectively. The mai ..."
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Cited by 64 (2 self)
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e present new sound and complete axiomatizations of type equality and subtype inequality for a firstorder type language with regular recursive types. The rules are motivated by coinductive characterizations of type containment and type equality via simulation and bisimulation, respectively. The main novelty of the axiomatization is the fixpoint rule (or coinduction principle), which has the form A; P ` P A ` P (Fix) where P is either a type equality = 0 or type containment 0 and the proof of the premise must be contractive in a formal sense. In particular, a proof of A; P ` P using the assumption axiom is not contractive. The fixpoint rule embodies a finitary coinduction principle and thus allows us to capture a coinductive relation in the fundamentally inductive framework of inference systems. The new axiomatizations are more concise than previous axiomatizations, particularly so for type containment since no separate axiomatization of type equality is required, as in A...
Subtyping Constrained Types
, 1996
"... A constrained type is a type that comes with a set of subtyping constraints on variables occurring in the type. Constrained type inference systems are a natural generalization of Hindley/Milner type inference to languages with subtyping. This paper develops several subtyping relations on polymorphic ..."
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Cited by 61 (2 self)
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A constrained type is a type that comes with a set of subtyping constraints on variables occurring in the type. Constrained type inference systems are a natural generalization of Hindley/Milner type inference to languages with subtyping. This paper develops several subtyping relations on polymorphic constrained types of a general form that allows recursive constraints and multiple bounds on type variables. We establish a full type abstraction property that equates a novel operational notion of subtyping with a semantic notion based on regular trees. The decidability of this notion of subtyping is open; we present a decidable approximation. Subtyping constrained types has applications to signature matching and to constrained type simplification. The relation will thus be a critical component of any programming language incorporating a constrained typing system. 1 Introduction A constrained type is a type that is additionally constrained by a set of subtyping constraints on the free ty...