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43
Compressed fulltext indexes
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text l ..."
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Cited by 172 (78 self)
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Fulltext indexes provide fast substring search over large text collections. A serious problem of these indexes has traditionally been their space consumption. A recent trend is to develop indexes that exploit the compressibility of the text, so that their size is a function of the compressed text length. This concept has evolved into selfindexes, which in addition contain enough information to reproduce any text portion, so they replace the text. The exciting possibility of an index that takes space close to that of the compressed text, replaces it, and in addition provides fast search over it, has triggered a wealth of activity and produced surprising results in a very short time, and radically changed the status of this area in less than five years. The most successful indexes nowadays are able to obtain almost optimal space and search time simultaneously. In this paper we present the main concepts underlying selfindexes. We explain the relationship between text entropy and regularities that show up in index structures and permit compressing them. Then we cover the most relevant selfindexes up to date, focusing on the essential aspects on how they exploit the text compressibility and how they solve efficiently various search problems. We aim at giving the theoretical background to understand and follow the developments in this area.
Fullyfunctional succinct trees
 In Proc. 21st SODA
, 2010
"... We propose new succinct representations of ordinal trees, which have been studied extensively. It is known that any nnode static tree can be represented in 2n + o(n) bits and a large number of operations on the tree can be supported in constant time under the wordRAM model. However existing data s ..."
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Cited by 33 (13 self)
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We propose new succinct representations of ordinal trees, which have been studied extensively. It is known that any nnode static tree can be represented in 2n + o(n) bits and a large number of operations on the tree can be supported in constant time under the wordRAM model. However existing data structures are not satisfactory in both theory and practice because (1) the lowerorder term is Ω(nlog log n / log n), which cannot be neglected in practice, (2) the hidden constant is also large, (3) the data structures are complicated and difficult to implement, and (4) the techniques do not extend to dynamic trees supporting insertions and deletions of nodes. We propose a simple and flexible data structure, called the range minmax tree, that reduces the large number of relevant tree operations considered in the literature to a few primitives, which are carried out in constant time on sufficiently small trees. The result is then extended to trees of arbitrary size, achieving 2n + O(n/polylog(n)) bits of space. The redundancy is significantly lower than in any previous proposal, and the data structure is easily implemented. Furthermore, using the same framework, we derive the first fullyfunctional dynamic succinct trees. 1
Rank and select revisited and extended
 Workshop on SpaceConscious Algorithms, University of
, 2006
"... The deep connection between the BurrowsWheeler transform (BWT) and the socalled rank and select data structures for symbol sequences is the basis of most successful approaches to compressed text indexing. Rank of a symbol at a given position equals the number of times the symbol appears in the corr ..."
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Cited by 32 (17 self)
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The deep connection between the BurrowsWheeler transform (BWT) and the socalled rank and select data structures for symbol sequences is the basis of most successful approaches to compressed text indexing. Rank of a symbol at a given position equals the number of times the symbol appears in the corresponding prefix of the sequence. Select is the inverse, retrieving the positions of the symbol occurrences. It has been shown that improvements to rank/select algorithms, in combination with the BWT, turn into improved compressed text indexes. This paper is devoted to alternative implementations and extensions of rank and select data structures. First, we show that one can use gap encoding techniques to obtain constant time rank and select queries in essentially the same space as what is achieved by the best current direct solution (and sometimes less). Second, we extend symbol rank and select to substring rank and select, giving several space/time tradeoffs for the problem. An application of these queries is in positionrestricted substring searching, where one can specify the range in the text where the search is restricted to, and only occurrences residing in that range are to be reported. In addition, arbitrary occurrences are reported in text position order. Several byproducts of our results display connections with searchable partial sums, Chazelle’s twodimensional data structures, and Grossi et al.’s wavelet trees.
Implicit compression boosting with applications to selfindexing
 In Proc. SPIRE'07, LNCS 4726
, 2007
"... Abstract. Compression boosting (Ferragina & Manzini, SODA 2004) is a new technique to enhance zeroth order entropy compressors ’ performance to kth order entropy. It works by constructing the BurrowsWheeler transform of the input text, finding optimal partitioning of the transform, and then compre ..."
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Cited by 29 (16 self)
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Abstract. Compression boosting (Ferragina & Manzini, SODA 2004) is a new technique to enhance zeroth order entropy compressors ’ performance to kth order entropy. It works by constructing the BurrowsWheeler transform of the input text, finding optimal partitioning of the transform, and then compressing each piece using an arbitrary zeroth order compressor. The optimal partitioning has the property that the achieved compression is boosted to kth order entropy, for any k. The technique has an application to text indexing: Essentially, building a wavelet tree (Grossi et al., SODA 2003) for each piece in the partitioning yields a kth order compressed fulltext selfindex providing efficient substring searches on the indexed text (Ferragina et al., SPIRE 2004). In this paper, we show that using explicit compression boosting with wavelet trees is not necessary; our new analysis reveals that the size of the wavelet tree built for the complete BurrowsWheeler transformed text is, in essence, the sum of those built for the pieces in the optimal partitioning. Hence, the technique provides a way to do compression boosting implicitly, with a trivial linear time algorithm, but fixed to a specific zeroth order compressor (Raman et al., SODA 2002). In addition to having these consequences on compression and static fulltext selfindexes, the analysis shows that a recent dynamic zeroth order compressed selfindex (Mäkinen & Navarro, CPM 2006) occupies in fact space proportional to kth order entropy. 1
Fullycompressed suffix trees
 IN: PACS 2000. LNCS
, 2000
"... Suffix trees are by far the most important data structure in stringology, with myriads of applications in fields like bioinformatics and information retrieval. Classical representations of suffix trees require O(n log n) bits of space, for a string of size n. This is considerably more than the nlog ..."
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Cited by 20 (14 self)
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Suffix trees are by far the most important data structure in stringology, with myriads of applications in fields like bioinformatics and information retrieval. Classical representations of suffix trees require O(n log n) bits of space, for a string of size n. This is considerably more than the nlog 2 σ bits needed for the string itself, where σ is the alphabet size. The size of suffix trees has been a barrier to their wider adoption in practice. Recent compressed suffix tree representations require just the space of the compressed string plus Θ(n) extra bits. This is already spectacular, but still unsatisfactory when σ is small as in DNA sequences. In this paper we introduce the first compressed suffix tree representation that breaks this linearspace barrier. Our representation requires sublinear extra space and supports a large set of navigational operations in logarithmic time. An essential ingredient of our representation is the lowest common ancestor (LCA) query. We reveal important connections between LCA queries and suffix tree navigation.
Geometric burrowswheeler transform: Linking range searching and text indexing
 In DCC
"... We introduce a new variant of the popular BurrowsWheeler transform (BWT) called Geometric BurrowsWheeler Transform (GBWT). Unlike BWT, which merely permutes the text, GBWT converts the text into a set of points in 2dimensional geometry. Using this transform, we can answer to many open questions i ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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We introduce a new variant of the popular BurrowsWheeler transform (BWT) called Geometric BurrowsWheeler Transform (GBWT). Unlike BWT, which merely permutes the text, GBWT converts the text into a set of points in 2dimensional geometry. Using this transform, we can answer to many open questions in compressed text indexing: (1) Can compressed data structures be designed in external memory with similar performance as the uncompressed counterparts? (2) Can compressed data structures be designed for position restricted pattern matching [16]? We also introduce a reverse transform, called Points2Text, which converts a set of points into text. This transform allows us to derive the first known lower bounds in compressed text indexing. We show strong equivalence between data structural problems in geometric range searching and text pattern matching. This provides a way to derive new results in compressed text indexing by translating the results from range searching. 1
Fullyfunctional static and dynamic succinct trees
, 2010
"... We propose new succinct representations of ordinal trees, which have been studied extensively. It is known that any nnode static tree can be represented in 2n + o(n) bits and various operations on the tree can be supported in constant time under the wordRAM model. However the data structures are c ..."
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Cited by 17 (10 self)
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We propose new succinct representations of ordinal trees, which have been studied extensively. It is known that any nnode static tree can be represented in 2n + o(n) bits and various operations on the tree can be supported in constant time under the wordRAM model. However the data structures are complicated and difficult to dynamize. We propose a simple and flexible data structure, called the range minmax tree, that reduces the large number of relevant tree operations considered in the literature, to a few primitives that are carried out in constant time on sufficiently small trees. The result is extended to trees of arbitrary size, achieving 2n + O(n/polylog(n)) bits of space. The redundancy is significantly lower than any previous proposal. For the dynamic case, where insertion/deletion of nodes is allowed, the existing data structures support very limited operations. Our data structure builds on the range minmax tree to achieve 2n + O(n / log n) bits of space and O(log n) time for all the operations. We also propose an improved data structure using 2n+O(n loglog n / logn) bits and improving the time to O(log n / loglog n) for most operations.
Compact RichFunctional Binary Relation Representations
"... Abstract. Binary relations are an important abstraction arising in a number of data representation problems. Each existing data structure specializes in the few basic operations required by one single application, and takes only limited advantage of the inherent redundancy of binary relations. We sh ..."
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Cited by 12 (7 self)
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Abstract. Binary relations are an important abstraction arising in a number of data representation problems. Each existing data structure specializes in the few basic operations required by one single application, and takes only limited advantage of the inherent redundancy of binary relations. We show how to support more general operations efficiently, while taking better advantage of some forms of redundancy in practical instances. As a basis for a more general discussion on binary relation data structures, we list the operations of potential interest for practical applications, and give reductions between operations. We identify a set of operations that yield the support of all others. As a first contribution to the discussion, we present two data structures for binary relations, each of which achieves a distinct tradeoff between the space used to store and index the relation, the set of operations supported in sublinear time, and the time in which those operations are supported. The experimental performance of our data structures shows that they not only offer good time complexities to carry out many operations, but also take advantage of regularities that arise in practical instances in order to reduce space usage. 1
Directly Addressable VariableLength Codes
"... We introduce a symbol reordering technique that implicitly synchronizes variablelength codes, such that it is possible to directly access the ith codeword without need of any sampling method. The technique is practical and has many applications to the representation of ordered sets, sparse bitmaps ..."
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Cited by 12 (8 self)
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We introduce a symbol reordering technique that implicitly synchronizes variablelength codes, such that it is possible to directly access the ith codeword without need of any sampling method. The technique is practical and has many applications to the representation of ordered sets, sparse bitmaps, partial sums, and compressed data structures for suffix trees, arrays, and inverted indexes, to name just a few. We show experimentally that the technique offers a competitive alternative to other data structures that handle this problem.
Improved dynamic rankselect entropybound structures
 in Proc. of the Latin American Theoretical Informatics (LATIN
"... Abstract. Operations rank and select over a sequence of symbols have many applications to the design of succinct and compressed data structures to manage text collections, structured text, binary relations, trees, graphs, and so on. We are interested in the case where the collections can be updated ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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Abstract. Operations rank and select over a sequence of symbols have many applications to the design of succinct and compressed data structures to manage text collections, structured text, binary relations, trees, graphs, and so on. We are interested in the case where the collections can be updated via insertions and deletions of symbols. Two current solutions stand out as the best in the tradeoff of space versus time (considering all the operations). One by Mäkinen and Navarro achieves compressed space (i.e., nH0 + o(n log σ) bits) and O(log nlog σ) worstcase time for all the operations, where n is the sequence length, σ is the alphabet size, and H0 is the zeroorder entropy of the sequence. The other log σ log log n solution, by Lee and Park, achieves O(log n(1 +)) amortized time and uncompressed space, i.e. nlog σ +O(n)+o(nlog σ) bits. In this paper we show that the best of both worlds can be achieved. We log σ combine the solutions to obtain nH0+o(nlog σ) bits of space and O(log n(1+)) worstcase time log log n for all the operations. Apart from the best current solution, we obtain some byproducts that might be